development of science plays a crucial role in the evolution of our society.
?Although this scientific progress
is pretty rapid and stunning, researchers and scientists always keep finding
themselves in the middle of a dilemma concerning research ethics.
?Thus, abiding by the
high ethical standards in any research is a common consideration in the
?The word ‘ethics’ originates from the Greek word
‘ethos’, meaning custom or behavior.
?The concept of ethics, initially suggested by the Greek
philosopher Aristotle, was developed to analyze social and individual values,
their interconnection and their hierarchy in the society.
Law and Ethics are not the same thing;
v Most societies have legal rules that regulate behavior
(=laws), but ethical norms tend to be more extended and
more informal than laws.
v Ethical behavior conforms to the commonly acknowledged social norms.
?3. RESEARCH ETHICS
ethical standards serve the objectives of research and are applicable
scientists, students and people conducting creative activities.
§Research ethics promote sincerity and integrity during all the
phases of the research, from data collection to publication.
§Research standards are deeply integrated into the way
scientists work. The reliability and the scientific
acknowledgement of their work depends upon adhering to these ethics.
§Many of the ethical principles in science
relate to the production of unbiased scientific knowledge, which is critical
when others try to extend the research’s findings.
?4.IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH ETHICS
Research ethics ensure :
ØThe accuracy of
intellectual property rights.
fabrication or falsifying of data and therefore, promoting the pursuit of
knowledge and truth.
environment of trust, accountability, and mutual
respect among researchers in
collaborative work. This
is crucial when considering issues related to data sharing, co-authorship,
copyright guidelines, confidentiality…
Øassuring the public
that researchers followed the appropriate guidelines for issues such as human
rights, animal welfare, compliance with the law, conflicts of interest, safety,
?5. CODES AND POLICIES FOR RESEARCH ETHICS
1.Honesty in reporting data,
results, methods, procedures, and publication status. Data must not be
fabricated, falsified or misrepresented.
by avoiding bias in
experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel
decisions, grant writing and expert testimony.
3.Integrity : The researcher must
keep his promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of
thought and action.
4.Carefulness by avoiding careless
errors and negligence. The researcher must Keep a good records of research
activities, such as data collection, research design, and correspondence with
agencies or journals.
5.Openness : Sharing data,
results, ideas, tools, resources and being open to criticism and new ideas.
Intellectual Property: Honoring
patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property, not using
unpublished data, methods, or results without permission and giving proper
acknowledgement or credit for all contributions to research.
confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for
publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records.
scientist must publish in order to advance science, not
to advance just his own career. Wasteful and duplicative publication must be
9.Responsible Mentoring: The researcher must
Help to educate, mentor, and advise students. He must promote their welfare and
allow them to make their own decisions.
researcher must respect his colleagues and treat them fairly.
to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social harms through research,
public education, and advocacy.
against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other
factors not related to scientific competence and integrity.
The researcher must
maintain and improve his own professional competence and expertise through
lifelong education and learning.
The scientist must
know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies.
Care: Animals should be
treated with care and respect when used in research.
Subjects Protection: When
conducting research on human subjects, harms and risks should be minimized and
benefits should be maximized. In addition, human dignity, privacy, and autonomy
must be respected.
?6. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE RESEARCHER
The researcher must :
a positive contribution to science.
sincere and trustworthy.
üAvoid any kind of
the privacy of others.
the research ethics.
subjects (humans or
coercive or reward responses.
individual scientist has the ethical responsibility to seek knowledge and
improve the quality of life.
üAccuracy in results reporting,
üHonesty in resources managing,
üConsidering the consequences.
?7. SCIENTIFIC MISCONDUCT
What Can Be Considered a Case of Scientific Misconduct?
Scientific misconduct is “the violation of the
standard codes of ethical behavior in professional scientific research”. The term Scientific
Misconduct can be
used only if the misconduct is intentional and
Scientific misconduct can be
considered the willful ignorance of data, evidence
of falsifying, skewing
of data or deliberate misrepresentation of data. Scientific
misconduct can also be considered the misuse of human subjects.
?Although several cases of scientific misconduct has hit
the media since the 1980’s
and projected the reality of the situation, scientific misconduct is way older than that.
It is estimated that some of the
greatest minds in science have either fabricated results, or skewed data to
support their theories.
?”Isaac Newton may have adjusted
calculations to fit observations.”
results with pea plants were cleaner than what is observed
experimentally, indicating that he might have changed
in a research paper describing the charge of an electron, failed to
mention that he eliminated some data points.”
1.Insufficient and undisciplined research.
4.Ignoring major aspects
of human-subject requirements.
or data points from
analyses based on a gut feeling that they were inaccurate.
presentation or analysis.
7.Falsification: The manipulation of
research material, equipment, processes, or changing or omitting data or results thus affecting
accuracy of reporting.
8.Fabrication: Making up results
and recording or reporting them.
9.Plagiarism: “The unauthorized
use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the
representation of them as one’s own original work”.
10.Plagiarism-fabrication: Taking an unrelated
figure from an unrelated publication and reproducing it exactly in a new
Gift authorship :
Where there is stated authorship in the absence of involvement.
13.Ghost-writing: Where someone other
than the named athor makes a major
authorship : The practice of
being pressured to give authorship to
individuals because of their positions.
claims of authorship.
16.Undisclosed conflicts of interest.
support / admiration authorship : The practice of authors placing each other’s names on
papers even though they made little or no direct contributions.
authorship: Listing someone as author who has not agreed to be an
author or not consulted about authorship.
?Examples of scientific misconduct : example 1
?Charles Dawson (born in 1864) made by the late
19th century important fossil discoveries.
?His most famous discovery, came in late 1912: a
new species that represented the missing link between man and ape :
the “Piltdown Man”.
?This discovery made quite an impact, confounding the
scientific community for decades, long after Dawson’s death in 1915.
?Examples of scientific misconduct : example 2
?During World War II, the Nazis committed wretched and inhumane things in
the concentration camps between
1933 and 1945.
?A total of sixteen German physicians practiced unethical
medical experiments on Jews, gypsies, and political prisoners Inmates .These
experiments that were excruciatingly painful and usually resulted in death.
?8. REASONS FOR UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR
act unethically for a number of reasons:
the consequences of unethical behavior.
more importance to the quantity of publication over
for academic credit, promotion, fame, incentive bonus and recognition.
of moral and scientific ethical values.
to avoid, reading, wondering, reasoning and analytical thinking by using
ready to use informations.
who have a tendency to disobey research ethics in
their student life, continue to do so in their academic life.
emergence of counterfeit thesis fraud in the recent years.
?9. MEASURES TO
PREVENT UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN RESEARCH AND PUBLISHING
ØGeneral and Managerial Measures
?9.1. General and Managerial Measures
people about the importance of following
research ethics and raise awareness about the consequences of scientific
students since an early age to be original and express themselves without the
need to steal other’s ideas
the researcher with sufficient funds and good working conditions and avoid
applying any kind of administrative or financial pressure on him.
researcher must keep an archive of
documents including detailed informations about the conducted experiences for
at least 5 years .
researcher must look beyond the idea of increasing the number of his
publications and focus more on their quality and their benefit society.
and researchers who commit scientific misconduct must be punished.
?9.2. Legal Measures
can have terrible consequences in any workplace :
of professional credibility,
(for severe copyright infringement cases),
of professional license or degree,
professional career prospects can be damaged,
breach of ethics is considered very serious, punishable at least within the
profession (by revocation of a license, for example) and sometimes by
the law as well.
In USA “Most cases
of plagiarism are considered misdemeanors, punishable by fines of anywhere
between $100 and $50,000 — and up to one year in jail. Plagiarism can also
be considered a felony under certain state and federal laws. For example, if a
plagiarist copies and earns more than $2,500 from copyrighted material, he or
she may face up to $250,000 in fines and up to ten years in jail.”
Different plagiarism detection
available. The following list contains some of the most
effective free plagiarism detection tools on the Internet:
checker : https://www.duplichecker.com/
Engine Reports: https://searchenginereports.net/plagiarism-checker
Seo Tools: https://smallseotools.com/plagiarism-checker/
?10. CONSEQUENCES OF PLAGIARISM
consequences unethical research include:
qFor students :
The reputation of the student can be
destroyed. He can get suspended or expelled. In addition, his academic record
can reflect the ethics offense reducing his chances to enter college.
Once scarred with plagiarism allegations,
an academic’s career is ruined depriving him from the ability to publish in the
If the original author sues the plagiarist who stole his idea, he can be
Research ethics are codes
and policies that
outline ethical behavior and guide researchers.
These codes involve matters such as sincerity,
objectivity, honoring intellectual property, , confidentiality, competence,
protecting human subjects…
The researcher must avoid scientific
fabrication, plagiarism, faulty data-gathering procedures, guest/gift
authorship and, committing
any harm to animals or humans.
A huge number scientific misconduct cases
goes unreported. It is estimated that for every reported
case there may ten unreported cases.
Punishment for scientific misconduct
differ depending on the severity of the misconduct.