?1. standards are deeply integrated into the way scientists

?1. INTRODUCTION

?Nowadays, the
development of science plays a crucial role in the evolution of our society.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

?

?Although this scientific progress
is pretty rapid and stunning, researchers and scientists always keep finding
themselves in the middle of a dilemma concerning research ethics.

?

?Thus, abiding by the
high ethical standards in any research is a common consideration in the
scientific community.

?

?2. ETHICS

?The word ‘ethics’ originates from the Greek word
‘ethos’, meaning custom or behavior.

?The concept of ethics, initially suggested by the Greek
philosopher Aristotle, was developed to analyze social and individual values,
their interconnection and their hierarchy in the society.

?

?

?

    Law and Ethics are not the same thing;

v Most societies have legal rules that regulate behavior
(=laws), but ethical norms tend to be more extended and
more informal than laws.

v Ethical behavior conforms to the commonly acknowledged social norms.

 

?

?3. RESEARCH ETHICS

?

            Moreover,
ethical standards serve the objectives of research and are applicable
to
scientists, students and people conducting creative activities.

?

§Research ethics promote sincerity and integrity during all the
phases of the research, from data collection to publication.

§Research standards are deeply integrated into the way
scientists work. The reliability and the scientific
acknowledgement of their work depends upon adhering to these ethics.

§Many of the ethical principles in science
relate to the production of unbiased scientific knowledge, which is critical
when others try to extend the research’s findings.

§

?

?4.IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH ETHICS

Research ethics ensure :

ØThe accuracy of
scientific knowledge.

ØProtecting
intellectual property rights.

ØPreventing the
fabrication or falsifying of data and therefore, promoting the pursuit of
knowledge and truth.

ØEncouraging an
environment of trust, accountability, and mutual
respect among researchers in
collaborative work.       This
is crucial when considering issues related to data sharing, co-authorship,
copyright guidelines, confidentiality…

Øassuring the public
that researchers followed the appropriate guidelines for issues such as human
rights, animal welfare, compliance with the law, conflicts of interest, safety,
health standards… 

?

?5. CODES AND POLICIES FOR RESEARCH ETHICS

1.Honesty in reporting data,
results, methods, procedures, and publication status. Data must not be
fabricated, falsified or misrepresented.

?

2.Objectivity
by avoiding bias in
experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel
decisions, grant writing and expert testimony.

?

3.Integrity : The researcher must
keep his promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of
thought and action.

?

4.Carefulness by avoiding careless
errors and negligence. The researcher must Keep a good records of research
activities, such as data collection, research design, and correspondence with
agencies or journals.

?

5.Openness : Sharing data,
results, ideas, tools, resources and being open to criticism and new ideas.

?

?

6.Respect for
Intellectual Property: Honoring
patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property, not using
unpublished data, methods, or results without permission and giving proper
acknowledgement or credit for all contributions to research.

?

7.Confidentiality: Protecting
confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for
publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records.

?

8.Responsible
Publication: The
scientist must publish in order to advance science, not
to advance just his own career. Wasteful and duplicative publication must be
avoided.

?

9.Responsible Mentoring: The researcher must
Help to educate, mentor, and advise students. He must promote their welfare and
allow them to make their own decisions.

10.Respect for
colleagues: The
researcher must respect his colleagues and treat them fairly.

?

?

?

11.Social
Responsibility: Strive
to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social harms through research,
public education, and advocacy.

?

12.Non-Discrimination:
Avoid discrimination
against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other
factors not related to scientific competence and integrity.

?

13.Competence:
The researcher must
maintain and improve his own professional competence and expertise through
lifelong education and learning.

?

14.Legality:
The scientist must
know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies.

?

15.Animal
Care: Animals should be
treated with care and respect when used in research.

?

16.Human
Subjects Protection: When
conducting research on human subjects, harms and risks should be minimized and
benefits should be maximized. In addition, human dignity, privacy, and autonomy
must be respected.

?

?

?6. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE RESEARCHER

The researcher must :

üEnsure
a positive contribution to science.

üBe
sincere and trustworthy.

üAvoid any kind of
discrimination.

üGive
proper credit.

üEnsure
confidentiality and
anonymity.

üRespect
the privacy of others.

üHonor
the research ethics.

üTreat
subjects (humans or
animals) well.

üReduce
coercive or reward responses.

?

?

     Each
individual scientist has the ethical responsibility to seek knowledge and
improve the quality of life.

  Requirements of
a scientist:

üCompetence,

üAccuracy in results reporting,

üHonesty in resources managing,

üAcknowledging others,

üConsidering the consequences.

?

?7. SCIENTIFIC MISCONDUCT

What Can Be Considered a Case of Scientific Misconduct?

     Scientific misconduct is “the violation of the
standard codes of ethical behavior in professional scientific research”. The term Scientific
Misconduct can be
used only if the misconduct is intentional and
willful.

 

     Scientific misconduct can be
considered the willful ignorance of data, evidence
of falsifying, skewing
of data or deliberate misrepresentation of data. Scientific
misconduct can also be considered the misuse of human subjects.

?Although several cases of scientific misconduct has hit
the media since the 1980’s
and projected the reality of the situation, scientific misconduct is way older than that.

?

?

     It is estimated that some of the
greatest minds in science have either fabricated results, or skewed data to
support their theories.

Examples:

?”Isaac Newton may have adjusted
calculations to fit observations.”

?”Gregor Mendel’s
results with pea plants were cleaner than what is observed
experimentally, indicating that he might have changed
the data.”

?”Robert Millikan,
in a research paper describing the charge of an electron, failed to
mention that he eliminated some data points.”

?

?

1.Insufficient  and undisciplined research.

2.Duplicated
publication.

3.Data slicing.

4.Ignoring major aspects
of human-subject requirements.

5.Dropping observations
or data points from
analyses based on a gut feeling that they were inaccurate.

6.Problematic data
presentation or analysis.

7.Falsification: The manipulation of
research material, equipment, processes, or changing  or omitting data or results thus affecting
accuracy of reporting.

8.Fabrication: Making up results
and recording or reporting them.

9.Plagiarism: “The unauthorized
use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the
representation of them as one’s own original work”.

10.Plagiarism-fabrication: Taking an unrelated
figure from an unrelated publication and reproducing it exactly in a new
publication.

?

?

?

?

11.Self
plagiarism.

12.Guest/
Gift authorship :
Where there is stated authorship in the absence of involvement.

13.Ghost-writing: Where someone other
than the named athor makes a major
contribution.

14.Coercion
authorship : The practice of
being pressured to give authorship  to
individuals because of their positions.

15.Inappropriate
claims of authorship.

16.Undisclosed conflicts of interest.

17.Copyright
Infringement.

18.Mutual
support / admiration authorship : The practice of authors placing each other’s names on
papers even though they made little or no direct contributions.

19.Unapproved
authorship: Listing someone as author who has not agreed to be an
author or not consulted about authorship.

20.Faulty
data-gathering procedures.

21.Poor
data-gathering procedures.

?

?Examples of scientific misconduct : example 1

?Charles Dawson (born in 1864) made by the late
19th century important fossil discoveries.

?His most famous discovery, came in late 1912: a
new species that represented the missing link between man and ape :
the “Piltdown Man”.

?This discovery made quite an impact, confounding the
scientific community for decades, long after Dawson’s death in 1915.  

?

?Examples of scientific misconduct : example 2

?During World War II, the Nazis committed wretched and inhumane things in
the concentration camps between
1933 and 1945.

?A total of sixteen German physicians practiced unethical
medical experiments on Jews, gypsies, and political prisoners Inmates .These
experiments that were excruciatingly painful and usually resulted in death.

?

?

?8. REASONS FOR UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR

People
act unethically for a number of reasons:

?

?

üUnderestimating
the consequences of unethical behavior.

üAccording
more importance to  the quantity of publication over
their quality.

üAiming
for academic credit, promotion, fame,  incentive bonus and recognition.

üWeakness
of moral and scientific ethical values.

üTrying
to avoid, reading, wondering, reasoning and analytical thinking by using
ready to use informations.

üStudents
who have a tendency to disobey research ethics in
their student life, continue to do so in their academic life.

üThe
emergence of counterfeit thesis fraud in the recent years.

?

?9. MEASURES TO
PREVENT UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN RESEARCH AND PUBLISHING

ØGeneral and Managerial Measures

ØLegal Measures

ØTechnical Measures

Ø

?9.1. General and Managerial Measures

üEducate
people about  the importance of following
research ethics and raise awareness about the consequences of scientific
misconduct.

ü

üEncourage
students since an early age to be original and express themselves without the
need to steal other’s ideas

ü

üProvide
the researcher with sufficient funds and good working conditions and avoid
applying any kind of administrative or financial pressure on him.

ü

üThe
researcher must  keep an archive of
documents including detailed informations about the conducted experiences for
at least 5 years .

ü

üThe
researcher must look beyond the idea of increasing the number of his
publications and focus more on their quality and their benefit society.

ü

üScientists
and researchers who commit scientific misconduct must be punished.

?

?

?

?9.2. Legal Measures

    Unethical behavior
can have terrible consequences in any workplace :

ØSuspension,

ØExpulsion,

ØLoss
of professional credibility,

ØImprisonment
(for severe copyright infringement cases),

ØLoss
of professional license or degree,

ØFuture
professional career prospects can be damaged,

ØA
breach of ethics is considered very serious, punishable at least within the
profession (by revocation of a license, for example) and sometimes by
the law as well.

?

?

?

   From plagiarism.org: 

   In USA “Most cases
of plagiarism are considered misdemeanors, punishable by fines of anywhere
between $100 and $50,000 — and up to one year in jail. Plagiarism can also
be considered a felony under certain state and federal laws. For example, if a
plagiarist copies and earns more than $2,500 from copyrighted material, he or
she may face up to $250,000 in fines and up to ten years in jail.”

?

?9.3.Technical Measures

     Different plagiarism detection
softwares are
available. The following list contains some of the most
effective free plagiarism detection tools on the Internet:

?Plagium
: http://www.plagium.com/

?Plagscan:
https://www.plagscan.com/docman#

?Dupli
checker : https://www.duplichecker.com/

?Copyleaks:
https://copyleaks.com/

?PaperRater:
https://www.paperrater.com

?Plagiarisma:
http://www.plagiarisma.net/

?Pagiarism
checker: http://www.plagiarismchecker.com/

?Quetext:
https://www.quetext.com

?EduBirdie: https://edubirdie.com/plagiarism-checker

?Searching
Engine Reports: https://searchenginereports.net/plagiarism-checker

?Small
Seo Tools: https://smallseotools.com/plagiarism-checker/

?

?

?

?10. CONSEQUENCES OF PLAGIARISM

The
consequences unethical research include:

qFor students :

     The reputation of the student can be
destroyed. He can get suspended or expelled. In addition, his academic record
can reflect the ethics offense reducing his chances to enter college.

qFor Academics:

    Once scarred with plagiarism allegations,
an academic’s career is ruined depriving him from the ability to publish in the
future.

?

?

?

    If the original author sues the  plagiarist who stole his idea, he can be
granted monetary
restitution.

?

?11. CONCLUSION

     Research ethics are codes
and policies that
outline ethical behavior and guide researchers. 

     These codes involve matters such as sincerity,
objectivity, honoring intellectual property, , confidentiality, competence,
protecting human subjects…

§

     The researcher must avoid scientific
misconduct: falsification,
fabrication, plagiarism, faulty data-gathering procedures, guest/gift
authorship and, committing
any harm to animals or humans.

§

     A huge number scientific misconduct cases
goes unreported. It is estimated that for every reported
case there may ten unreported cases.

     Punishment for scientific misconduct
differ depending on the severity of the misconduct.

?

?

x

Hi!
I'm Brenda!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out