Literature review.

The division in Kenya politics is largely along the ethnic lines. The series of violent outbursts in many regions are based on opposition strongholds. Following the declaration of the 2007 election results, the violence lasted for close to two months (Burchard, S.M 2008). The unrest involved disagreements between two ethnic groups of the two main presidential candidates.  Former president Mwai Kibaki, of the Kikuyu tribe, and former prime minister Raila Odinga of the Luo tribe. After Kibaki was declared president, members of the opposing Luo tribe launched demonstrations and attacks targeting the Kikuyus tribe.  Slums were the first places affected by the outrage, thousands of Kikuyu members were displaced. The root of the deadly presidential political violence today dates back to land disputes and promises made by previous leaders to supporters. It was a period where the most powerful took all.  Powerful groups dominated the weaker ones and appropriated resources particularly farm lands.  This system of economic relationship endured colonial times, but the perceived injustices and deprivations manifested themselves in recurring cycles of violence throughout the country. Economic and business practices from years past persist today and continue to deprive many communities.  Much of the organized violence in the Rift Valley province stemmed from the land dispute because Rift Valley was occupied by Kalenjin and Maasai, while the central highlands were occupied by the Kikuyu and other communities involved in agricultural activities. Further, the allocation of land by the authorities after independence marginalizes certain ethnic groups. The Kalenjin’s in particular felt that they had been cheated out of the land redistribution program and reacted violently displacing many Kikuyus. The Kalenjin’s thought the Kikuyus were allocated some of the land which was theirs to begin with. In search for reparation, the Kalenjins then assured to return to the old set of rules based the Majimbo constitution in order to relocate the Kikuyu and repossess their ancestral lands. However, the above problem account seems an oversimplification of the recent crisis. 

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