expansion in average lifetime and more cost for health analysis have provided
result in cost effective clarifications for healthcare monitoring system.
Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a promising innovation for delivering
quality medicinal services to its clients. WBAN are conceived to play
significant part in medical and non-medical applications. This paper identifies
various challenges and issues of wireless body area network. Furthermore it
provide a detailed literature review of various energy efficient routing
protocols used in the WBSN sector by talking about their pros and cons. Due to
advancement in wireless technology miniature Low power devices connected to the
body have limited battery. It is suitable to have energy efficient routing
protocols that maintain the required reliability value for delivering the data
from a given node to the sink. This paper provide the comparison of ATTEMPT (Adaptive
Threshold based Thermal unaware Energy-efficient Multi-hop Protocol), M-ATTEMPT
(Mobility-supporting Adaptive Threshold-based Thermal-aware Energy-efficient
Multi-hop Protocol), SIMPLE (Stable Increased-throughput Multi-hop Protocol for
Link Efficiency) and IM_SIMPLE (improved stable increased-throughput multi-hop
link efficient routing protocol) has been done by simulating in MATLAB.
Keywords: Wireless body
area network, energy aware, various routing protocols in WBAN
Sensor Networks (WSNs) are utilized to screen certain parameters in numerous
applications like environment monitoring, agriculture field monitoring,
habitant monitoring and smart homes. These wireless sensors are scattered in
sensing area to monitor field. WBAN is new rising sub-field of WSN. WBAN are
getting developing interest because of their suitability for medical, non-medical
and psychological applications. The health monitoring is key application of
WBAN. Wireless sensors are set on the human body or embedded in the body to
screen vital sign such as body temperature, glucose level, blood pressure, EMG
and position. The patients are monitored at home for longer period with the
help of WBAN. Sensors persistently sense information and forward to medical server
via internet. Utilization of WBAN technology to monitor health parameters
essentially reduces the expenditures of patient in hospital 1.
sensor nodes are operated with limited energy source in WBAN. The limited
energy is needed to utilize least power for transmitting information from
sensor node to sink node. To overcome the limited energy issue an energy
efficient routing protocol is required. In WBAN one of the major difficulties
is to recharge the batteries. Hence an energy efficient routing protocol is
required to conquer this problem of recharging batteries. In WSN technology
numerous energy efficient routing protocols are proposed. WBANs and WSNs have
different architectures, programs and work in various circumstances. Routing
protocol developed for WSN but may not implement for WBAN. Therefore energy
efficient routing protocol for WBAN is particularly needed to keep track of
sufferers for a longer time. 2 . Nodes are placed in or on the human body as shown
in the figure 1, which are accountable to deliver the gathered data at the
specified location (doctor specialist) through internet. In next section
challenges to design routing protocols are discussed
Deployment of nodes
protocols are used in WBAN for better network performance in term of delay,
throughput, energy efficiency etc. Here,
this paper discussed few factors which make it difficult to choose a routing
protocol for WBAN.
Environment: Different types of sensor nodes are implanted in body to sense and
monitor the different health parameters of human beings. Every node is
heterogeneous in nature because energy consumption and storage capabilities are
different from one to another 19.
and privacy: Routing protocol should be offering secure information and
handling the data.
of Services: Different types of data require different quality of services in
WBANs. Patient data classified into reliable sensitive data, critical data, delay
sensitive data and ordinary data. The
suggested method should be aware of these types of information 6.
consumption: The sensor nodes consume more energy as compared to sensing and
processing data. The greater distance between are main factor of energy
consumption. Battery power cannot be frequently recharged or replaced when
nodes are placed on body.
support: The network topology is changed and routes among are altered with
movement of body. The data loss is very high so, WBAN require flexible routing
protocol that adjusts the mobility 1.
resource: WBANs have limited energy resource, limited storage capacity, poor
computation capabilities and radio frequency transmission. Designing protocols
should be aware of limited resource foe WBANs.
2. Related work
ATTEMPT protocol 12 employing heterogeneous sensors on human body. This
routing protocol uses two mechanisms for data transmission such as single-hop
communication and multi-hop communication. Single-hop communication: Number of
nodes sends the emergency data to sink with the minimum possible delay.
Multi-hop communication: Intermediate nodes are used to send the normal data to
sink. The main aim of this protocol in which nodes are placed according to data
rates because in Single-hop communication causes increased load on distant
nodes and multi-hop communication empties the battery power of closer nodes
quickly. The prime difficulty in WBASNs is the implanted sensor nodes use high
temperature areas and heat generated by these sensor nodes in human body.
the authors (Javaid et al., 2013), introduced a thermal aware routing protocol
to route the data away from high temperature areas (hot spots).
ATTEMPT protocol 12 nodes use same amplification energy to transmit data from
transmitter to receiver whether the distance is more or less between them.
There should be a mechanism which decides the required amplification energy for
the nodes which communicate to the cluster head or base station. If we use same
amplification energy for the nodes which transmitting the packet to cluster
head and the nodes which transmitting the packet the base station it results in
wastage of energy. The solution to this problem is that nodes must have the
knowledge of the network and then decide how much they need the amplification
energy. Modleach protocol was designed for wireless sensor network to solve
this problem. Same concept is implemented in the proposed protocol for wireless
body area network with some modification. It uses two techniques: efficient
cluster head replacement and dual transmitting power.
routing is discussed in Algorithm 2. If two routes are available then route
with less hopcounts
selected. If two routes have same hop-count, then route with less energy
consumption to the sink