ABSTRACT issues are pending to implement this operational model

ABSTRACT

A
next generation of advanced Smart
Air Traffic System (SATS) that relies on current technological advances is
required due to limited efficiency of current air traffic systems. This
challenge means a transition towards a new set of navigation rules and
procedures that are to be followed by pilots and air traffic controllers. As a
result designing a new Human Computer Interaction (HCI) to perform these vital
roles and activities is a key element to SATS. However attempts in developing
such tools have to be doing by taking into picture of some real time scenarios.
Here the main focus is on integrating airborne HCI in to SATS where cockpit
inputs came from aircraft navigation systems, surrounding traffic situation,
controllers’ indications, etc.. Hence the end result will be a HCI which will
provide situation awareness inside the pilot cockpit.

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INTODUCTION

The
present air traffic system is a centralised Air Traffic Control where air
traffic controllers use voice communication links to give information like
speed, altitude, heading etc. to the pilot which is based on tactical decision
made by the air traffic controller by gathering data from radar positions and
flight plan. This kind of operational methodology is not sufficient in future
due to increase in air traffic. (Canino-Rodríguez JM, 2015)

On the other hand, nowadays a new technology
support for Communications, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management
(CNS/ATM) are being developed for civil aviation. This system will allow the
sharing of real time data between different systems involved in air traffic
control. This will help aircrafts to share data from their on-board sensors and
navigation information with other systems. (Canino-Rodríguez JM, 2015)

However several issues are pending to implement
this operational model effectively

1.     
In order to
make aircraft trajectories compatible with present air traffic control staff so
new coordination procedure for distributed decision making process should be
implemented such as air-ground trajectories, sharing data from aircraft,
knowing the intention along with flight plan and solving emergency situations.

2.     
New HCI
designs that allow SATS users (mainly aircrew, air traffic controllers) to
carry out their respective tasks for different automation levels of above
procedures.

3.     
New
mathematical models and algorithms required by air and ground systems. These
are the computational sides of HCI and they must cope with several functions related
to the management of trajectories and parallel decision making process (Canino-Rodríguez
JM, 2015)

 

3.     
APPLYING
AGENT METHODOLY TO MODEL SMART AIR TRAFFIC SCENARIO

 

Conceptual model is developed in three stages

A.    System Specification

B.     Architectural Design

C.     Detailed Design

 

A.    SYSTEM SPECIFICATION

System specification will identify several
scenarios that take place in overall air traffic scenario. These will highlight
important aspects of system operations and can be divided into sub-scenarios at
different stages. To find most useful scenario it is important to add goals to it
so this will lead to system functionalities.

In SATS perceptions are either input from human
side of HCI or from the sensors so aircraft agent perceptions must integrate
both the on-board navigation sensors and the external input from ATC so the
pilots will get all information to take further actions. Similarly actions
represent the output side of HCI or other behaviour of SATS agents.

From this analysis Manage Navigation Procedure
scenarios are will be derived which will define HCI functionalities. Navigation
Procedure is considered as set of airborne task aimed at flying a flight plan.
The procedure states can be classified in following manner (Canino-Rodríguez
JM, 2015)

v  Planning, intended to calculate and negotiate the
trajectory

v  Executing, intended to manage parameters of a
running trajectory

v  Re-planning, intended to modify a trajectory

 

B.     ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

As a result of previous system specifications
Architectural design defines systems static as well as its dynamic behaviour.

Then through these
protocols aircraft can:

v  Request clearance to
perform its preferred trajectory and arguments.

v  Accept or reject ATC
trajectory proposals.

v  Perform
counter-proposals to ATC agent.

v  Inform about content
of final decision adopted.

At the same time, ATC
can:

v  Confirm trajectories
requested by aircraft.

v  Propose alternative
requested trajectories.

v  Accept or reject
aircraft proposals.

v  Inform about specific
content of the final decision adopted.

C.     DETAILED DESIGN

In this phase the internal agent processes and
their architecture are derived from their previous phases. At computational
level functionalities and other processes can be implemented by plans. A plan
is a sequence of simple tasks which represents particular way of responding to
a situation. Plans to implement specific functionalities and
decision-making and inter-agent coordination processes are grouped into
capabilities. Therefore, in this case, capabilities represent the computational
side of the HCI system and are considered as restructuring mechanisms akin to
modules that implement several interrelated functionalities and processes by
means of plans (Canino-Rodríguez JM, 2015)

 

4.     
AIRCRAFT
AGENT DESIGN : MAIN ON-BOARD CAPABALITIES

 

The functionalities derived from the
specification system phase can grouped into the following six cockpit
capabilities.

 

A. Aircraft Environment Information Management

B. Aircraft systems Alarm Management

C. Conflict Detection-Resolution

D. Airborne Contingency Management

E. Trajectory Guidance

F. Navigation Procedures Management

 

 

4.1  NAVIGATION PROCEDURES MANAGEMENT

 

Managing trajectory planning processes is done by
navigation procedures management. Information like flight plans helps the pilot
to take decision by interior agents which have information to manage the
aircraft. These are categorised into four sub category which are Flight
Planning, Executing Procedures, Planning Next Procedure, Re-planning current
procedures. (Canino-Rodríguez JM, 2015)

 

4.2  TRAJECTORY GUIDANCE

 

The Auto Pilot /Flight Directory which determines
the route in which the aircraft has to travel is managed by Trajectory
Guidance. So to make use of SATS the functionalities of current Flight
Management System/Flight Directory has to be extended. It also provides real
time information regarding flight trajectory with the help of Flight Vector
which comes from Navigation Procedures Management system. (Canino-Rodríguez
JM, 2015)

 

 

 

4.3  AIRCRAFT ENVIROMENT INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

 

Maintaining updated environmental information
like weather report, surrounding air traffic, sensor data, near-by airports,
air space resources etc. is managed by Aircraft Environment Information
Management System. (Canino-Rodríguez JM, 2015)

 

4.4  CONFLICT DETECTION-RESOLUTION

 

This system will detect collision of an aircraft
from terrains or with other objects in the air space especially with other
aircraft to be specific and it will avoid such conflicts with the help of other
systems/capabilities like Trajectory Guidance which will provide alternate
route to the aircraft. (Canino-Rodríguez JM, 2015)

 

4.5  AIRBORNE CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT

 

This will help in deciding procedural task in
accordance with input information received from other agents/systems. These are
identified as follows.

 

v  Alternate plan to deal with Critical
environmental changes

v  Alternate plan to handle System Failures

v  Conflict contingency

v  Contingency from other aircraft

v  Airline contingency

v  Contingency from ATC

v  Alternate plan to deal on-board emergency like
crew or a passenger

 

 

5.     
COCKPIT HCI
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

 

As a result of previous outcomes we have
developed a system architecture. The subsystems in this architecture shares and
uses next three set of data groups.

 

v  Environment and Surrounding Traffic Information

v  Procedure List

v  Procedure State

 

Environment and surrounding traffic information
comes from aircraft sensors and recent communications with Advanced Dependence Surveillance
systems (ADS).

Procedure List data contains the list of
procedures the aircraft should fly along its gate-to-gate route.

Procedure State collects data about the
management process for each procedure regarding their stages of planning and
modification of new trajectory.

 

Previous data are shared with next sub systems
which are integral part of cockpit HCI. These sub systems mainly matches
aircraft agent capabilities which are mentioned below. (Canino-Rodríguez JM, 2015)

 

v  Navigation management System

v  Contingency Management System

v  Environment Information Management System

v  Alarm Management System

v  Conflict Detection Resolution System

v  Communication and ADS System

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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