After In late 1970s, advanced capitalist countries started to

After the second world war, with the collapse of
imperialism and colonialism, the world witnessed emergence of new nation states
in colonized Asia, Latin America and Africa. These new countries had certain
common structural features such as centuries of colonial exploitation, lack of
economic infrastructure, absence of stable political leadership, unequal social
structure and above all extreme poverty and under developed market system. Thus,
the main objectives of these new countries after independence were to engage in
an immense nation building process through effective socio economic policy
framework. Although there were similarities in persuade of economic and
ideological path, achieving socio-economic progress was different. In most
countries, absence of stable and effective administrative structure joined with
social and political unrest seriously affected the prospects of growth, which in
due course resulted in low GDP growth, under developed status, regional and to
many extent racial imbalance and prevalence of semi feudal social structure. Albeit
public expenditure was amplified to build up development oriented, pro active
administrative structure, in most of the countries these efforts ended up in
mismanagement and massive corruption. Therefore, the main concern of these
aforementioned post- colonial countries was to build up administrative competence
and leadership without erode the basic values of transparency, veracity and
efficiency. Among those countries, Singapore is an unique example of
effectively utilizing leadership and public management to achieve economic
growth with sustainability, equity and altruistic justice.

In the contemporary global context, dominated by
capitalistic market-driven ideology, most countries all over the world have
adopted innumerable types of public administration reforms. Different countries
had different approaches and different variations in the scope and concentration
of those reforms. In late 1970s, advanced capitalist countries started to imply
neoliberal approaches like stretching the market forces and reducing the state
power of intervention to overcome economic stagnation, unemployment and
inefficiency.1 Newly
liberated developing countries and transitional economies started to follow these
reforms implied by the developed countries and world economies and some
prescriptions of various international agencies. Singapore also was one of
those emerging developing countries that has very enthusiastically embraced and
started to apply those reforms in there spheres of polity, in governance, in
public administration, which can be observed in its state initiatives (public
service21, Singapore21 and son on). 2

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Unlike many other developing countries, which also
implied customer-oriented, business-oriented reforms on governance and
bureaucracy, Singapore reflects some unique features. Like all other
commonwealth countries, Singapore also inherited its bureaucratic legacy from British
model of governance. Its governance has come to know and widely praised for its
efficiency. It constantly manages to generate economic growth in such a pace
that it is famously recognized as ‘economic miracle’. Singapore’s economic
growth has remained consistently high-at an average annual rate of 9.8 percent
in the 1970s and 8.2 percent in the 1980s. Between 1988 and 1997, its Gross
Domestic Product or GDP increased more than 2.5 times; between 1993 and 1997,
it continued to rank very high in terms of its business-friendly environment;
and by 1994, its per capita GDP (us$20,000) surpassed that of Australia,
Canada, and the UK. 3

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