Annotated BibliographyMelanie GeiserNorthcentral UniversityVaughn, S., Simmons, D., Wanzek, J., & Society for Research on, Educational Effectiveness.(2013). Using design experiments to understand secondary classroom comprehensionpractices. ().Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. Retrieved from http://proxy1.ncu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true. &db=eric&AN=ED564079&site=eds-liveType and PurposeThe purpose of this mixed methods study was to discover if interventions of team-based learning in social studies and critical reading methods in English language arts could enhance student content knowledge and reading comprehension. These studies focused on the following questions: (a) what are the potential and achievability of the two interventions, (b) what are the intervention refinements, and (c) to what length are the willingness and perceptions of the users? Methodology There were three phases of critical reading practices developed for the study. Phase one tapped into the students’ background knowledge of fundamental concepts, vocabulary, and text structure. Phase two involved activities that expected students to discuss their results with peers to clarify their understanding. Phase three included text generation in which the students outlined essential concepts from the text and recorded them on graphic organizers for use throughout the year. The quantitative data analysis included the number of frequency and averages from the collection of data from observations, lesson feedback forms, and audio taped observations. The qualitative data collection included teacher feedback from questionnaires and observations of the classroom atmosphere. Findings and Conclusion The study found that succinct methods and scaffolds were required for teachers to successfully promote the reading of difficult text within their content curriculum. It also emphasized the need for the development of vocabulary terms. Evaluation This study required extra preparation time for the educators participating in the study. The comprehension practices must be flexible and adaptable as there is no set standard range or sequence for when the text types are introduced. I would be able to use this in my classroom and would be useful in biology. The time it would take to set up might be an issue if time was not allotted during the day for planning.Hawkins, R. O., Hale, A., Sheeley, W., & Ling, S. (2011). Repeated reading and vocabulary-previewing interventions to improve fluency and comprehension for struggling high-school readers. Psychology in the Schools, 48(1), 59-77. doi:10.1002/pits.20545Type and Purpose The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the outcomes of two intervention research on the comprehension, rate, and fluency, comprehension of reading. Students were repeatedly exposed to three procedures: repeated reading (RR), repeated reading and vocabulary previewing (RR +VR), and no intervention control conditions. There were two research questions that this study expected to answer: 1) Does RR increase comprehension, oral reading comprehension rate, and fluency for students reading below grade level in high school? and 2) Does the addition of a VP component to RR interventions procedures increase levels of comprehension, comprehension rate, and fluency? This study hypothesized that both interventions would have notable effects on reading level, but the RR + VP intervention would lead to the most significant impact.Methodology The study added great insight into the most effective reading intervention approach for high-school students. The first method analyzed struggling high-school readers and the effects of an RR with error correction intervention. The second way determined the impact of adding VP activities to RR procedures to increase comprehension. This study’s dependent variable was the oral reading comprehension rate. The population sample included six special education students with a learning disability in reading whom were currently taking 10th and 11th grade classes, but were on a fourth- through eighth-grade reading level. These students were identified to be good candidates for this study by a special education professional. To decide the students’ reading level, the students had to complete three reading tasks. Depending on the number of words correct for each task, they were moved down to the proper grade level for reading. The student had to read 70 to 100 words error-free per minute with less than seven mistakes. Findings and Conclusions Data for all dependent variables were graphed for each student. Visual analysis was the main method for the result’s interpretation. For reading fluency, the RR +R implementation seemed to result in the greatest benefit. The implementation of the RR + VP resulted in the highest reading comprehension level in three students, and the RR + VP and RR conditions generated comparable comprehension levels for the other three students. The RR + VP implementation was found to be the best for reading comprehension in five of the six students.Evaluation This study’s intervention lasted 10 to 20 minutes per session, three to five days per week. According to Hawkins, et al., greater benefits could have resulted but the sessions would have had to been longer, more frequent, and longer time frame. This study coincides with many of the other studies that are being currently done by Kuhn and Stahl, LaBerge and Samuels, etc. This study would be very useful for my purpose. I also would have easy access to grade level reading skills and helpful special education teachers. Dutke, S., Grefe, A. C., & Leopold, C. (2016). Learning from scientific texts: Personalizing the text increases transfer performance and task involvement. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 31(4), 499-513. Retrieved from http://proxy1.ncu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true=eric=EJ1113934=eds-live http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10212-015-0281-6Type and PurposeThe purpose of this quantitative study was to see if personalizing the text in scientific texts increased performances and involvement. The hypothesis stated the researchers believed if teachers personalized the students’ learning materials, it would boost their reading level and motivation.Methodology Two groups consisting of a total of 65 randomly selected 11th-grade students were tested. The two groups included ones with personalized text and ones with non-personalized text. The study measured whether or not students performed better with the different texts. The control variable for this study was the points for prior knowledge. The points for text comprehension, performance, motivation, and time spent restudying text acted as the dependent variables.The personalized version included the personal pronouns such as “your” eye, instead of the non-personalized version of “the” eye. The students were asked to complete a series of questions from the reading. A week later, they were asked to complete a true-false test and assign a particular statement, devised by the authors, of how they felt about how they answered the question. A numeric weight was assigned to each statement. Depending on the students’ final score, the researchers calculated the weight.Findings and Conclusions The students performed very well with the personalized text. However, the number of questions answered in the personalized text did not show any significant increase when compared to the non-personalized text exam takers. So, while the students may have enjoyed reading the personalized material more, it did not particularly show that it had significant value.Evaluation The limitations observed by the researchers suggest that while this study confirmed that motivation might increase, more variables need to be explored. Further research need to consider non-motivational explanations of text personalization. Studies by Rogers, Symons, and Johnson suggest that personal text is easier to recall than text processed without particular reference to the student. While the findings did not definitively accept the hypothesis, I would have to agree that reading about something personal would be more pleasurable to the student and therefore, he may want to continue reading further into the topic. This study is still of interest to me.Hebert, M., Bohaty, J. J., Nelson, J. R., & Brown, J. (2016). The effects of text structure instruction on expository reading comprehension: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(5), 609-629. doi:10.1037/edu0000082Type and Purpose The purpose of this mixed methods study was determine the effects of text structure on expository reading comprehension. Two question were posed in this study: 1) Does text structure instruction (TSI) improve students’ comprehension of expository text? 2) Do the effects of instruction in expository text structures shift to external measures of comprehension?Methodology For this study, an electronic search was conducted to find manuscripts about the focus questions. Ninety-nine searches were run across six electronic databases. Forty-five of the 307 manuscripts met the requirements of the focus questions. After selection, the manuscript looked for variables in three classifications: study descriptors, quality indicators, and variables required to calculate result sizes. The results of each study were statistically analyzed and then exposed to a meta-regression analysis.Findings and Conclusions The results showed that text structure instruction did improve expository reading comprehension. Two moderators, teaching more text structures and writing in the instruction, were found to increase effect sizes. Evaluation There were three limitations discussed by the authors. The first limitation found that there were many variables the current researchers could not control from previous research. Another concern was how comparable were the results from the initial study to the current study. Finally, there was unease over the differences in the text structure management. While this study demonstrated the accuracy of the focus questions, the authors believed more research was needed to focus on the incorporation of different text structure interventions. Since I teach biology, this article was fascinating and I will need to re-examine it on a potential basis for my dissertation.Santoso, E. (2015). Improving students’ reading comprehension through interactive read-aloud technique. Premise Journal, Vol 4, Iss 2 (2015), (2) doi:10.24127/pj.v4i2.305 Type and Purpose The purpose and focus question of this mixed methods study was to determine if reading comprehension would improve through interactive read-aloud techniques. Methodology This study’s design was carried out in steps. Each step had four actions: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. Step one chose an appropriate book at the student’s reading level. Step two pre-read the selection and planned discussion interactions using sticky notes to mark the text. Step three involved the act of stopping for interactions. Every 10-15 minutes of reading had an interaction point with the student. The final step evaluated the student’s progress and comprehension. The student needed to recall the events in the story. Findings and Conclusions The study showed that the students’ reading improved through the interactive reading from cycle 1 to cycle 3. The mean score of cycle 1 was 71.1, the mean score of cycle 2 was 72.9, and cycle 3’s mean score was 75.7. Evaluation Some limitations arose during this study. First, it was stated that English teachers must be kept current on the newest teaching movements. Next, the teacher must continue student interest and motivation by knowing the student’s interests. Lastly, the administration must be in support of the teacher’s efforts and needs. This is a technique that I use in my classroom. The students read for a little while out loud, and then we discuss what we have learned. The students must paraphrase the material into their own words for credit.