Authorship ConceptThis theory was a French concept on a film called Auter Theory. It was formed by Alexandre Astruc and Andre Bazin in 1954 and they published it on the Cahiers du Cinema film journal. It was as a result of wanting to give film directors recognition of being film author. This reasoning was due to how a film director took up a script written by other people or by the person himself and advancing it into a final product as a film. The director has the authority over the script to edit as the person sees fit to put out his ideas. The director has all the power over the script. This is by choosing the cast he wants on the film, choosing the crew that he wants to work with him, picking all the scene background and being involved in the editing process. In the finale, the end product is solely based on the director’s style. After these considerations, a director’s aspirations are told in the film. These ideas can also reflect on the day to day life of a director, his thoughts, believes and principles. His style can also be what he has learned in the period he has spent making films. This is all the skills, knowledge and successful experiments that he has put in all his previous films. These styles now became evident in his recent films.The Auteur theory goes further to explain that each director has his own unique way of working. These are seen throughout the person’s films. It later simplifies the idea to imply that without earlier knowledge of a film, an audience can watch a film and know at the end who directed the film. Therefore the style is based on one particular director. Hence the film mirrors the director’s own individual creative visualization. Directors have a highly demanding profession. Their main objective is to bring their dream into reality and their vision into concepts that are workable. He has to explain his ideas to his crew and cast. This is the workforce he needs to get to work.A good example of Auteur concept is Wes Anderson. He has directed the Moonrise Kingdom, The Royal Tenenbaums, and The Grand Budapest Hotel. Within the first few minutes of the film, one can guess who the director is. This is because he chooses distinctive color palette which links everything from the actor’s outfits to scene backgrounds. He also prefers to shoot his frames from a tripod style. This is unlike other directors who prefer to have many camera movements.David O. Russell has of recent become very stylistic in directing. “The Fighter”, “American Hustle” and “Silver Lining Playbook” have similar flairs. The film that identifies to this concept among the three above is “Silver Lining Playbook”. It was an adaptation of a novel done by Matthew Quick. David is a writer in nature and as such wrote the film’s screenplay. This film was a success as he received the Hollywood Directors Award at the Hollywood Film Awards in 2013. He got the Independent Spirit Award for Best Director and Best Screenplay. He also won Satellite Awards Best Director and Best Screenplay.The script was very personal to David. His son, Matthew and his friend went through a similar encounter with mental illness. He also had a time of depression which he says openly. This made the script more personal for him. When he was making the film, he had his son in mind. Matthew had bipolar disorder. This proves that David is an auteur. He made the film with the intention to show the positive side of people living with the mental disorder. His greatest gift is his ability to use his own life experiences and adapt them to films.The movie is about two people who have suffered great loss but find companionship when they are together. They both have bipolar disorders. Pat finds his wife, Nikii having an affair and in a twist, she leaves him. He goes into a downward spiral, loses his job and his ex-wife now files a restraining order against him. He is forced to go back home and live with his parents. He then reconnects with Tiffany whom her husband dies and this loss makes her sleep aimlessly with almost all the men at her workplace. She also loses her job and is forced to live with her parents. She finds peace in dance. Pat joins her with the intention of using her to pass information to Nikii who is Tiffany’s sister. At the end, the two crazy people fall in love.Almost all the characters in the film have a mental illness. Apart from Pat and Tiffany, Pat’s father suffers from obsessive-compulsive disorder. Pat’s best friend also has mental issues. Veronica, Tiffany’s sister has her own issues too. The director’s vision was to show that they were all in similar predicaments.David O. Russell uses similar themes in most of his films. The main ones are almost always, love friendship, family, and comedy. This has been his uniqueness in recent years. He takes up a script and changes it, adding his style of storytelling into it. He likes to have characters who have hit rock bottom and then work with them, building them up slowly.David has a style of using the same actors for most of his films. In casting, one needs to have a variety of actors and actresses. However, David O. Russell seems to be very comfortable working with Bradley Cooper and Jennifer Lawrence and Robert De Nero. The three Star in this film and also in the film “American Hustle”. This is a very good example of the authorship theory because the script does not tell who can play the roles. It is the director’s job to look for the right cast who can execute the roles perfectly. Actors are the lifeline of a film and the directors their mentors. They are like puppets and the one pulling the strings at the top is the director.He looks to construct on his characters and the world that they are in. Both Pat and Tiffany grow to be more safe and sane. Pat stops obsessing about Nikii and falls in love with Tiffany. When the film starts he wears a trash black bag on top of his sweater. When it ends he is in a suit and completely stops putting it on. We also see him building Solitano, Pat’s father, from all the debt he had from gambling. He wins the bet and is set for life.He also builds on strong female characters. Women empowerment seems to be a theme of importance to him. Women who can eventually stand up for themselves and know what they want. Veronica, Tiffany’s sister is strong-willed that even her husband is scared of her. Tiffany is also a strong person who finds a release channel for her anger and is able to influence Pat to make the right decisions.When a director picks his crew members, it is essential that they have an understanding of the work ahead. Most film directors have a pool of crew members that they like working with. David O. Russell is no exception. It is important to note here that the director of photography, lighting expert and set designer work closely together. He seems to use the same main crew members in his movies. This can be due to the closeness that he has with the crew. It is also crucial to work with people that have a good experience and know what they are doing. The camera movements are unending. They go around the characters when Tiffany and Pat are talking on the road and when they dance in the rehearsal studio and in the main performance. They also move to and from the character to emphasize emotions. David maps out the three hundred and sixty-degree lighting technique. This is because of all the movements the film has. It helps to save time and energy of keeping on changing lighting positions. In the house when they are making the bet, the lighting is well placed. During the performance also there are the three hundred and sixty-degree lights. The dance is recorded from all available angles. This is a style that describes his techniques. It is no doubt that most arguments in a film set will happen between the director and the cameraman. This is because the director’s vision will be seen through the eye of the camera. It has to be captured through the right angle. This film has a lot of movement. This means the cameraman had his work cut out for him. Movements translate to different camera angles and camera positions. Tracking, dolling, tilting are all found in this film. All these are capable of use of camera stabilizers like camera rigs, and tracking. His camera movements are smooth and almost unnoticeable by the audience. He achieves visual aesthetics. This is by his use of different type’s shots and framing. He also has different types of shots Authorship gives directors the status of a star. The film can be advertised by the mere use of the director’s name. David’s previous works speak for him and hence people will want to watch another one of his creations. In most cases, a film will use the main actor to promote the film. In the case of “Silver Lining Playbook”, in the normal marketing strategy of a film, Bradley Cooper is the main star and hence in marketing, he is the selling face. This is called the star system. Now with the authorship concept, David O. Russell is the director and is seen as the celebrity and star of the film. The director’s reputation is used as publicity. It uses magazine articles and trailers to advertise the director’s film. It is, however, a popular way of an advertising tactic for film promotion organizations and it is gaining audience acceptance. The audiences associate David O. Russell with most romantic and comedy films. When advertising “Silver Lining Playbook” by use of the reputation of the director, the audience at once associates the film with the genre that David O. Russell works on mostly. They automatically know that it is a romantic and comical film. David is all about breaking traditions and norms in filmmaking. He does not want to use the styles previously used by past icons but wants to write his own system. In most cases, he will always go with the feel of the set there and then. His creativity has seen him produce amazing films using unconventional techniques. The useful nature of this theory is that it helps a person grow in film knowledge. The director has the capacity to expand his ideas. He finds that he can accomplish almost anything. The more experience he gets, the better the film production industry. The directors have to connect with the audience’s wants and needs. Most of these are similar to their own. The narrative has to touch the audience in their daily activities. There has to be realism in the film. However, there is a negative aspect to this theory. It implies that the director does all the work. This is incorrect as a film has a large number of people working in different areas to make the film. They are under the mentorship of the director but none the less do very important roles. A director can only tell the director of photography how he wants a particular shot to be. The director of photography then does his work. Likewise, for an editor, the director has to work hand in hand with the person in charge of that department. There are other people involved in the production of filmmaking but now they are seen as secondary.Authorship theory does not apply to every director. This is because it needs a person with exquisite leadership skills. This person has to merge all the film departments so as to have them working towards his end goal. Most directors are known to be proud, egocentric and disrespectful to the cast mostly. There are those who over exaggerate their styles. This leads to the audience not understanding the message that was being passed. The director is the second and final author of a film. He decides what the final product will be and how it will look like. There is no one thing that happens to the film without his knowledge. All decisions are made by him. There are of course deliberations that happen with him and departmental heads. In the end, all decisions made go into making his vision a reality.A director’s style is unique only to that one director. From the time of Alfred Hitchcock to Spielberg. Film concepts are different and ever-changing. If anything, the best is yet to come. There are more techniques yet to be explored. Technology is helping the film directors achieve their dreams. The more films are made and released, the more the authorship concept is proven right.