Denmark [57]. The imposed taxes are usually up to

Denmark

The government of Denmark subsidizes the purchase
of FCVs by exempting the purchases from registration taxes 57. The
imposed taxes are usually up to 180% of the vehicle price 57. This tax
exemption means that the government provides indirect support of more than EUR 23,000
for each FCV 58. However,
from 2016, BEVs are included in the same tax scheme of petrol and diesel cars.
The increase in registration tax is gradually phased in, at 20% of the full tax
in 2016, 40% in 2017, 65% in 2018, 90% in 2019 and 100% in 2020.  Hydrogen and fuel cell?powered vehicles are
exempt from registration tax until the end of 2018 59. This has been one of the reasons for the drop in electric car sales
(-68%) observed in 2016 in Denmark 19. As of
2017, Denmark is introducing a purchase tax rebate on electric cars based on
the battery capacity of USD 225/kWh up to
a maximum of 45 kWh 19. Exemption
of FCVs from registration tax is continued
until the end of 2018 60.

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Public funding for R&D and demonstration of refueling stations are
available in Denmark which ranges from DKK1
0.5 – 15 million 61. Companies
in Denmark supplying EV charging on a commercial basis can receive an
electricity tax rebate of approximately DKK 1 per kWh 62.

As of September 2017, there are 10 HRSs in operation in Denmark 63. As of July
2017, there are 2,030 publicly-accessible EV charging stations in Denmark 64.

As of September 2017, there were 68 FCVs in Denmark 63. In 2015, there
were 8100 EVs in Denmark 62. Table 22 shows
Denmark’s target for the number of HRSs
and FCVs for 2025 and 2050 65.

Table 22. Denmark’s target for number of HRSs and
FCVs for 2025 and 2050 65

Year 

2025

2050

Number of HRSs

100-200

500-1000

Number of FCVs

50,000-100,000

50% of car fleet

 

Denmark’s energy projection for 2050 aims
almost 100% fossil fuel independence transportation 57.
While 50% of the car fleet is projected to be FCVs and 45% is projected to be
BEVs and PHEVs, a margin of 5% is left
for conventional fuels 57.
These projections were considered in 2014 and may change due to the change of
Denmark’s support policy toward electric vehicles.

Sweden

In Sweden, a
premium purchase rebate is granted for
the purchase of a new electric or hybrid electric vehicle 59:

– SEK2
40,000 for cars with zero CO2 emissions

– SEK 20,000
for cars with CO2 emissions between 1 and 50g/km

A five-year
exemption from annual circulation tax for electric vehicles with a maximum fuel
economy of 37 kWh/100 km is also available in Sweden.

HRSs development in Sweden is supported with funding and contribution from European and local
institutions (municipalities for instance). Sweden offers financial support for the development of charging
infrastructure which amounted to SEK 130 million in 2015 19.
As of October 2017, there are 4 HRSs in
Sweden 54.

Table
23 shows the number of accessible chargers in Sweden
from 2012 to 2016.

Table 23. Number of accessible
chargers in Sweden (2012-2016) 19

Year

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Publicly accessible slow chargers

500

1000

1070

1824

2215

Publicly accessible fast chargers

5

20

135

343

523

Total

505

1020

1205

2167

2738

 

As of May 2016, Sweden had 8 FCVs on the road 66. Table
24
shows BEV and PHEV stock in Sweden from 2012 to 2016.

Table 24. BEV and PHEV stock in Sweden (2012-2016) 19

Year

Number of BEVs and PHEVs (thousands)
 

2012

1.11 (41% BEV, 59% PHEV)

2013

2.66  (33%
BEV, 67% PHEV)

2014

7.32  (29%
BEV, 71% PHEV)

2015

15.91  (32%
BEV, 68% PHEV)

2016

29.33  (27%
BEV, 73% PHEV)

Sweden has a target of
achieving a fossil fuel-independent vehicle fleet by 2030 67.
Through Nordic Hydrogen Corridor, Sweden is targeting for
opening eight new hydrogen refueling stations, adding 100
fuel cell electric vehicles and achieving renewable hydrogen production by 2020
68.
Nordic Hydrogen Corridor is a study that aims to enable emission-free FCV transport between
the capitals of Nordic countries 69. This program
supports the development of HRSs, electrolyzers, and deployment of FCVs 69.

1
Exchange rate for Danish Krone in December 6th, 2017 is 1 DKK ~ 0.16
USD

2
Exchange rate for Swedish Krona in December 6th, 2017 is 1 SEK ~
0.12 USD

x

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