Early activities of his subjects, provoked rebellion among Protestants.

Early Modern Essay

The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) first began with when
the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II of Bohemia tried to reduce the religious
activities of his subjects, provoked rebellion among Protestants. The war
involved the strongest powers in europe for example, Sweden, France, Spain and
Austria all of them prosecuting campaigns mainly on german land. Mostly known
for the cruel wrong doings by mercenary soldiers, ending the war with a couple
series of agreements that made up the Peace of Westphalia. The consequense of
this adjusted and changed the political and religious map of central Europe,
creating the oppertunity for the old centralized Roman Catholic empire to
submit to a community of sovereign states.

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the Holy Roman Empire is a broad complex of one thousand
separate, small, self govering, political groups under the domain of the
Austrian Hapsburgs. Over the last two centuries, the balance of power in the
dominant states emerged.  But this ended
in the sixteenth century where the Reformation and the Counter Reformation
divided Germany into aggressive Protestant and Catholic camps, each prepared to
request help from other countires to assure its integrity if it became
necessary.

 in 1618, when
Ferdinand II started to remove certain religious privileges and enjoying the
content there. Directly requesting for aid to the Protestants in the empire and
to the bigger foreign Protestant states. For example, the Dutch Republic and
denmark. Ferdinand responds with asking bavaria who is leading the German
Catholics and spain. In the following effort, Ferdinand that got elected as
Roman Emperor in 1619 and his allies won a important victory at White Mountain
(1620) which allowed the annihilation of Protestantism in most parts of the
Hapsburg lands. Confident by this success, Ferdinand turned in 1621 against
Bohemia’s Protestant supporters in Germany. even though having the help from
Britain, Denmark, and the Dutch Republic they lost aswell and by 1629 imperial
armies commanded by Albrecht von Wallenstein killed most of Protestant Germany
and a big part of Denmark. Ferdinand then distrubited the Edict of Restitution,
taking back  lands in the empire that
belongs to the Catholic Church that had been captured and separated from
religion by Protestant rulers.

Swedish military support saved the Protestant cause. In
1630 an army led by King Gustav Adolf came to Germany with money from the
French.

for twelve years more armies carried out the dirty war,
made both too support themselves and to demolish everything useful for the
enemy country. Trouble arose when men had problems locating  resources. After time, came France’s victory
over the Spaniards at Rocroi (1643) thus Sweden’s defeat of the Imperialists at
Jankau (1645) forcing the Hapsburgs to make compromises that in 1648 led to the
Peace of Westphalia, which fixed most of the larger issues.

The Treaty is a very important document which carries the
information about the history of Europe with details of returning the taken
territories,about wrong doing events during the war and agreement that the
armies would be disbanded and all of the 
prisoners from war set free. A very important political result of the
war and the treaty was that France became a dominant state in continental Europe.
The Treaty also laid the legal foundations for the modern system of IR.

Things that were new in this war was that it can be
called the first modern war. New fighting forces were made like mercenary
troops and armed marauders. War became an industry which people could
personally gain on and profiteers plundred resources at every given chance. The
amountof people kiled was estimated to be around 4-12 milion lives, way more
brutal and vicious than any other previous war.

 

The Dutch Empire

The Dutch Empire is the name given to the different
territories controlled by the Netherlands. They were one of the most strongest
countries during most of the 17th century, also known as Dutch Golden Age.

In these times your social status was determined mostly
by your salary, middle class was what well payed individuals fell under, for
instance a lawyer or a small merchant but anything like farmers and shopkeepers
were lower class and below that fell servants and sailors

The Netherlands became part of the Habsburg dynasty’s
domain when Emperor Charles V divided the lands between his sons following his
resignation in 1555. In 1566, the Dutch revolt erupted and in 1568 the Eighty
years’ war also known as the war of independence, got into full swing, the
dutch empire started looting and pillaging all that belonged to Spain at the
time.

The Netherlands followed Portugal and Spain in building a
colonial empire outside continential Europe. The Dutch East India Company being
dominant, with the British, the Dutch originally made colonial possessions
because of corporate colonialism. some provinces of the Netherlands weren’t
fond of Spain’s control over them, so some of them joined together in league
against Spain, some of which I consider more important were the county of
Holland, the county of Flanders, the county of Zeeland, the lordship of
Friesland and the lordship of Utrecht. One of the places (the county of
Flanders) was almost entirely conquered by the Spaniards, those under the union
still recognized Spain as their ruler until the Twelve Years Truce which marked
a new dawn for the Dutch as Spain finally recognized them as their own nation
and not as their rulers.

After that, the Netherlands began in their advances one
of which was the Bank of Amsterdam which is considered by some the first modern
central bank, which went on to be even more influential with the rising prices
of precious metals that went through Europe from the New World, Japan and other
places around the globe.

Dutch sailors also participated in the surge of exploration
that unfolded in the 16th and 17th centuries. But the vast new territories
revealed by Barents, Hudson and Tasman in the Arctic and in Australasia/Oceania
did not generally become permanent Dutch colonies.

With out
a doubt the biggest strength of the Dutch was their economy, it was what shined
brightest. Aptly given the name Dutch Golden Age, the boom in their capital and
influx of merchants to the colony quickly made the Dutch an economic
powerhouse. The fact that the seven nations had separate governments wasn’t
very helpful when it came to coordinating the rebellion against Spain

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