Hurricanes, symptoms of depression in community samples and in

Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Tropical Cyclones are all the same weather phenomenon, but occur at different places. Hurricane is a large-scale closed circulation system in the atmosphere above the western Atlantic and Northeast Pacific with low barometric pressure and strong winds that rotate clockwise in the southern hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere (CRED, 2016). Typhoon is the same weather phenomenon, but originate above the western Pacific (CRED, 2016). Cyclone also refers to the same weather phenomenon, but in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean (CRED, 2016). According to the U.S. Department of Commerce (2006), Hurricane Katrina has been ranked as the costliest hurricane and third deadliest storm to ever strike the US Gulf Coast since the 1900s (Adeola & Picou, 2014). In the article Social Capital and the Mental Health Impact of Hurricane Katrina: Assessing Long-Term Patterns of Psychological Distress written by Francis O. Adeola and J. Steven Picou (2014), Hurricane Katrina was a primary cause of both physical and mental health problems among survivors, especially within the critically devastated area called ground zero in southeastern Louisiana and southwestern Mississippi. Since there was substantial evidence of the prevalence of acute stress symptoms and PTSD among Katrina survivors, Adeola and Picou (2014) employed a random digit dialed, RDD, telephone survey as an analytical strategy to study the psychosocial impacts of Katrina of Gulf Coast counties of Hancock and Harrison in the Mississippi and five counties of Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, and St. Tammany in Louisiana. In order to assess Katrina’s psychosocial impacts, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, CES-D, and the Impact of Event Scale, IES, are used through the RDD telephone survey. The CES-D measures individual’s experiences and feelings over the last seven days to detect symptoms of depression in community samples and in the general population (Adeola & Picou, 2014). Adeola and Picou (2014) explained the process of the CES-D measures by using RDD telephone survey that each respondent would receive a number of statements and provide the number of days that an individual experienced or felt regarding his or her experience during the last seven days. The IES measures psychosocial stress symptoms in the form of an interview to observe cognitive and behavioral responses that transpired over the last seven days at the time of the interview (Adeola & Picou, 2014). In the IES interview, interviewers would ask some questions to the interviewees to give a score regarding the incidence of Hurricane Katrina, ranging from 1 as not at all to 4 as often, whether the experiences have occurred or not during the past seven days (Adeola & Picou, 2014). Adeola and Picou (2014) found in the result from the IES that African-Americans were disproportionately depressed and stressed more than other ethnicities. Even though, Mississippi Gulf Coast residents exhibited a greater number of PTSD symptoms than rate than Louisiana residents, but the result from the CES-D measures that both Louisiana and Mississippi Gulf Coast residents displayed similar episodes of depression and stress (Adeola & Picou, 2014).Tornado, the most violent atmospheric storms, is a narrow violent wind vortex that extends from the base of a thunderstorm to the ground (CRED, 2016). According to the National Severe Storms Laboratory, NSSL, (2012), there are mainly two types of tornados, which are supercell and non-supercell. A supercell tornado is the most common and the most dangerous type, which is created by the rotation of the wind shear when winds at two different levels above the ground below at a different speed or different direction (NSSL, 2012). A non-supercell tornado is formed from a vertical wind vortex spinning near the ground also caused by wind shear (NSSL, 2012). According to the National Weather Service (2017), the Enhanced Fujita Scale is the updated version of the original Fujita-Pearson scale to measure the strength of the tornado, which its scale varying from FE-0 to EF-5. Though, a tornado is a common occurrence in the US; however, the rare powerful tornados scale EF5 on the Enhanced Fujita scale occurred in Alabama on April 27th, 2011between 14:00 P.M. and 19:00 P.M. was considered as the third deadliest tornado outbreak in the US history. The article Injuries and Post-Traumatic Stress following Historic Tornados: Alabama April 2011 written by Niederkrotenthaler, et al., (2013) characterized tornado injuries treated between April 27th to 30th, 2011 at Alabama hospital as direct injuries and indirect injuries and identified risk factors and screen for PTSD symptoms via the follow-up telephone interviews. By using ICDMAP-90 software, Niederkrotenthaler, et al., (2013) calculated body-region specific Abbreviated Injury Scale, AIS, score and Injury Severity Scores, ISS, through the software to convert ICD-9-CM codes to AIS and ISS in which an ISS of less than 10 was minor, 10 – 15 was mote, and more than 15 was severe. In accordance with the results, more than 70% were classified as direct injuries and the primary age was from 30 to 64 years old while the indirect injuries happened from clean-up activities not form the tornado itself; specifically, 89% of the tornado-related injuries with known ISS were relatively minor, 6% were moderate, and 5% were severe head-related injuries, leading to a major ICU admissions and death (Niederkrotenthaler, et al., 2013). In terms of PTSD, Niederkrotenthaler, et al., (2013) reported that 66 participants, 22.1%, of the 298 surveyed patients screened positive for PTSD.   Flood is, one of the most common natural disasters occurring in many regions of the world, the inundation of overflown water onto dry land (CRED, 2016). Naturally, flooding can occur after a sudden deluge of rain, sending streams out of their banks. When weather system persists a long period of time over a defined region, the saturated ground can cause riverbanks to overflow and cause flooding. Since 2000 to 2013, Thailand had been facing heavy flood inundation in every region in which more than 2,000 victims died; almost 34 million people were affected by flood disasters, and, the estimated damage amount cost nearly 40.6 billion dollars (CRED, 2016). Undoubtedly, the impacts from floods increased

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