In May 2016, www.biocote.com/blog/what-are-bacteria/.) Bacteria, also called prokaryotes, have

In this
essay, I will be talking about the bacteria’s impact on the body, how they can
lead diseases to be formed. The good and bad bacteria, how the good bacteria
are useful to our body and the effects of bad bacteria in our body. The
dissimilar ways different antibiotics destroy bacteria in and on our body to
prevent diseases and death. How the misuse of antibiotics can cause the growth
of antibiotic-resistant bacteria increasing mortality rate, the risk of getting
a disease and the risk of making the infection worst. The suggestions of using
antibiotics to treat disease and the solution that science has come up with to
reduce the development of superbugs.

Bacteria
are small, unicellular, living organisms (microorganisms), which can be seen by
a microscope as thy are invisible to the human eye. (Team, The BioCote. “What Are Bacteria?” BioCote,
BioCote, 10 May 2016, www.biocote.com/blog/what-are-bacteria/.) Bacteria, also called prokaryotes, have a nucleoid which isn’t enclosed
by a membrane, this means that it does not have a nucleus or any other membrane
bound organelles. (Vidyasagar, Aparna.
“What Are Bacteria?” LiveScience, Purch, 23 July 2015, www.livescience.com/51641-bacteria.html.) Bacteria adjust to be relevant to the different environments that they
encounter, they contain some common parts. Bacteria have ribosomes which create
protein to heal damage, they also have a cell wall to give the cell stability
and firmness. (Szymanski, Jennifer.
“What Is Bacteria? – Definition & Types.” Study.com, Study.com,
study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-bacteria-definition-types-quiz.html.) Bacteria
can be found anywhere in the atmosphere, they are in the air we breathe, on
ground and water. They can be found in intense atmospheres where temperature is
either very hot or very cold. Bacteria located in these strong environments are
called extremophiles. (“What
Are Bacteria?” Mold Bacteria Facts, 28 Apr. 2013, www.moldbacteriafacts.com/what-are-bacteria/.)

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Bacteria can be motile, being movable because of their form of arrangement.
Bacteria can also be immotile or nonmotile, this means that they can’t move. To
travel, bacteria have a long rear feature attached to their cell,
filament-like, called a flagellum. A flagellum is arranged with flagellin
protein which create extensive chains, giving the flagellum a curling
structure. The flagellum has a grapple near the cell membrane, this grapple
connects the flagellum to the cell at the motor. The motor is a sequence of
protein rings that cover the cell membrane and hold the flagellum to the cell
supplying motion to the cell. (Hartsock,
Angela. “Flagellum Bacterial Cell: Function & Definition.” Study.com,
Study.com,
study.com/academy/lesson/flagellum-bacterial-cell-function-definition-quiz.html.)

Some bacteria provide themselves with food from photosynthesis in which
their energy source is daylight. Other bacteria consume sources of nourishment
from their atmosphere. (Team, The
BioCote. “What Are Bacteria?” BioCote, BioCote, 10 May 2016, www.biocote.com/blog/what-are-bacteria/.) They also eat decomposing matter and waste
products. Bacteria active in our mouth and digestive systems absorb the food we
eat. (Insight Multimedia.
“Bacteria.” Explore Your Body – Microbe Magic, 7 Aug. 2007,
microbemagic.ucc.ie/inside_guts/more_info/bacteria.html.) Other bacteria have adjusted to locate energy on
ecological resources like iron and sulphur. (Team, The BioCote. “What Are Bacteria?” BioCote,
BioCote, 10 May 2016, www.biocote.com/blog/what-are-bacteria/.)

We also
have the good and bad bacteria, some have good effects on our body and we need
them to overthrow the bad bacterium that are trying to develop and create
diseases. Probiotics are good bacteria creating lactic acid microorganisms,
that are alike to bacteria inhabiting in the human body. They are essential
bacteria connected with a variety of advantages to health, used in medical
nourishment and medicine. (Russo,
Juniper. “List of Good Bacteria.” LIVESTRONG.COM, Leaf Group, 14
Aug. 2017, www.livestrong.com/article/26093-list-good-bacteria/.) For example: Lactobacillus acidophilus is a type of bacteria in the
Lactobacillus compartment. Lactobacillus acidophilus is in the intestine and
aids in the digestion of food, it creates lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide
making damaging circumstances for the development of injurious bacteria. (DiPardo, Robert. “List of Good Bacteria.” Healthy
Eating | SF Gate, healthyeating.sfgate.com/list-good-bacteria-7771.html.) 

The bad and
harmful bacteria in the human body are the source that can cause cancer,
diabetes, other diseases, death, etc. This happens when bad bacteria have space
to develop themselves, making the atmosphere favourable for the formation of a
disease. Some bacteria don’t severely affect your body, if they have time to
develop, they can cause the creation of a disease. (“Bacteria: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.” National
Center for Health Research, 28 Mar. 2017, www.center4research.org/bacteria-good-bad-ugly/.) For example: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a species of bacteria that
can be expanded through coughing, sneezing, etc. (“Travelers’ Health.” Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 5 Aug.
2014,
wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/diseases/pneumococcal-disease-streptococcus-pneumoniae.) This bacterium can possibly cause
pneumonia, a disease where the airspaces in the lungs get inflamed. (Stöppler, Melissa Conrad, and Charles Patrick Davis.
“Pneumonia Types, Symptoms, Vaccine, Treatment & Causes.” MedicineNet,
www.medicinenet.com/pneumonia_facts/article.htm.) Therefore, we need good bacteria to restrain the bad bacteria.

An element
that restricts the development and reproduction of bacteria or destroys it is
known as an antibiotic as it is prohibiting bacteria from generating disease to
the human body. Antibiotics are drugs/medicines, a kind of antimicrobial
specifically used to abolish bacteria. (Society, Microbiology. “What Are Antibiotics and How
Do They Work?” Microbiology Society, microbiologysociety.org/education-outreach/antibiotics-unearthed/antibiotics-and-antibiotic-resistance/what-are-antibiotics-and-how-do-they-work.html.) Antibiotics attack bacteria in
different ways, one way they attack is a bactericidal antibiotic which hinders
with the composition of the cell wall or the components in the cell. (Nordqvist, Christian. “Antibiotics: All You Need To
Know.” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 2 Jan. 2017,
www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278.php.) The cell wall is built from amino acid and
sugar chains connected with each other. (“How Do Antibiotics Work?” Science Focus,
8 Apr. 2010, www.sciencefocus.com/qa/how-do-antibiotics-kill-bacteria.) Antibiotics prohibit bacteria from
making a whole molecule called peptidoglycan located in the cell wall, this
molecule aids the cell wall by giving firmness, allowing the bacteria to live
in the human body. (Castro, Joseph. “How Do
Antibiotics Work?” LiveScience, Purch, 19 Mar. 2014, www.livescience.com/44201-how-do-antibiotics-work.html.) Another way antibiotics work is by
being bacteriostatic which prevents bacteria from reproducing. (Nordqvist, Christian. “Antibiotics: All You Need To
Know.” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 2 Jan. 2017,
www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278.php) The ribosome, the cell arrangement that
produces protein from the DNA. Antibiotic fasten to the ribosome, blocking it,
and preventing the production of protein. Ultimately, the bacterium stops
working. (“How Do Antibiotics
Work?” Science Focus, 8 Apr. 2010,
www.sciencefocus.com/qa/how-do-antibiotics-kill-bacteria.)

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are bacteria
that are not being attacked by antibiotics, they have adjusted to the
antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can live and reproduce during the
existence of an antibiotic. (Department
of Health & Human Services. “Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria.” Better
Health Channel, Department of Health & Human Services, 28 Feb. 2015, www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/antibiotic-resistant-bacteria.) Some bacteria are
already resistant to certain types of antibiotics, another cause is the misuse of antibiotics (too much use) which can advance the growth of
antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The use of antibiotics kills bacteria,
antibiotic-resistant bacteria develop and duplicate since the antibiotics are
unable to kill the bacterium . The constant use of antibiotics can upsurge the
quantity of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotics are not useful against
infections like colds, flus, ear infections, etc. The extensive usage of
antibiotics for these illnesses is how the misuse of antibiotics can create the
expansion of antibiotic resistance. (“Antibiotic
Prescribing and Use in Doctor’s Offices.” Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 25 Sept. 2017,
www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/community/about/antibiotic-resistance-faqs.html.)

Bacteria can already be resistant to certain types of antibiotic, but,
bacteria can also evolve into antibiotic-resistant bacteria: either by a
genetic change, by obtaining resistance from an alternative bacterium,
destroying the antibiotic, etc. Genetic changes allow the bacteria to
create enzymes that make antibiotics ineffective. Some mutations remove the
aimed cell that the antibiotic strikes at. Others block the entrance that lets
the antibiotic in the cell. Mutations can also create propelling devices, they
send the antibiotic outside, preventing it from attacking its aim. Bacteria can also obtain antibiotic-resistance from
other bacterium, they go through a development known as conjugation. Bacteria
can transfer genetic matter from one bacterium to another, viruses are also
used to transfer resistance characteristics amongst bacteria. The resistance
characteristics from one bacterium are enclosed into the main section of the
virus. The virus inserts these resistance qualities into bacteria that it
damages. (“General
Background: About Antibiotic Resistance.” APUA,
emerald.tufts.edu/med/apua/about_issue/about_antibioticres.shtml.) Antibiotic-resistant bacteria develop, antibiotics
attack non-resistant bacteria since they are unable to attack the
antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria live and
duplicate, the number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria upsurges. (“GCSE
Bitesize: Antibiotic Resistance.” BBC, BBC,
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa/keepinghealthy/defendingagainstinfectionrev7.shtml.)
If we lack antibiotics, transmittable diseases have harmful effects on
individuals and economies. For example, an analysis assessed past patterns in
‘Staphylococcus aureus’ contamination rate, economic consequences of poor
health and death in hospitals. It was concluded that in 2003, the economic
consequences of ‘Staphylococcus aureus’ were predicted to be $14.5 billion for
all inpatient treatments and $12.3 billion for surgical patient treatments. Therefore,
stopping these infections/diseases should produce equivalent cost savings. In
an issued cost efficiency study that was directed between children aged 6
months to 12 years realised in primary care offices, repetitive treatment with
amoxicillin was presented to be cost efficient. The equivalent study proves
that when linked with overdue prescription, 7 to 10 days of amoxicillin caused
substantial cost savings. In relations to the authentic cost that antibiotics
offer, evidence from cost has presented that furthermost antibiotics maintain
money and develop efficiency of simultaneous medicinal procedures. (“The Value of Antibiotics in
Treating Infectious Diseases.” Value of Medicines, pp. 1–3.) People have
recommended that the price of antibiotics needs to be increased like the cost
of new cancer drugs so that people can use them correctly. (Gallagher,
James. “Analysis: Antibiotic Apocalypse.” BBC News, BBC, 19 Nov.
2015, www.bbc.com/news/health-21702647.)

 

Scientists enhanced the intensity of an antibiotic called vancomycin
used to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Vancomycin is recognised from
its ability to fight against strong infections when other antibiotics were
unsuccessful at doing so. Researchers re-generated the antibiotic to function
in three different customs on bacteria, making it harder for bacteria to become
resistant to the antibiotic. Study shows that the new form of vancomycin is a
“thousand times” tougher than the old antibiotic. The teams’ former studies
presented that two alterations to vancomycin could be added, making it much
more effective and decrease the number of antibiotics necessary to fight the
bacteria and have the equivalent reaction. This change provides the antibiotic with an
upsurge in ability, this way, doctors use a decreased amount of this antibiotic
to attack the bacteria. The new form of vancomycin was experimented on
Enterococci bacteria and it destroyed vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (a
dangerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria) and Enterococci bacteria. Bacteria can’t function at the same time to figure out
a solution around three separate devices of movement. If the bacteria could
figure out a way of getting around one of the devices, it would be destroyed by
the other 2 mechanisms. (Forster,
Katie. “Scientists Modify Antibiotic to Create New Super-Strength Drug to Fight
Deadly Superbugs.” The Independent, Independent Digital News and
Media, 31 May 2017, www.independent.co.uk/news/health/superbugs-kill-cure-modify-antibiotics-create-super-strength-drug-scientists-vancomycin-a7765101.html. )

 

To
conclude, bacteria are spreading around and becoming resistance to many types
of antibiotics. We know that these bacteria are either already resistant to
antibiotics or they have become antibiotic resistant from the misuse/overuse of
antibiotics. We can prevent these antibiotic-resistant bacteria from developing
and duplicating ourselves, using antibiotics only if they were prescribed by
the doctor and use them as told. People should also avoid using them when they
have colds, flus, coughing, etc. as antibiotics are used to treat disease. The
economic burden caused by the bacteria spreading and causing infections,
stopping antibiotic-resistance bacteria from duplicating will result in cost
savings. To the growing problem of antibiotic-resistance, scientists have
developed vancomycin to kill antibiotic-resistance bacteria and reduce its
growth.

 

Bibliography:

Team, The BioCote.
“What Are Bacteria?” BioCote, BioCote, 10 May 2016, www.biocote.com/blog/what-are-bacteria/.

Vidyasagar, Aparna.
“What Are Bacteria?” LiveScience, Purch, 23 July 2015, www.livescience.com/51641-bacteria.html.

Szymanski, Jennifer.
“What Is Bacteria? – Definition & Types.” Study.com, Study.com,
study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-bacteria-definition-types-quiz.html.

“What Are Bacteria?” Mold Bacteria Facts, 28 Apr. 2013, www.moldbacteriafacts.com/what-are-bacteria/.

Hartsock, Angela.
“Flagellum Bacterial Cell: Function & Definition.” Study.com,
Study.com, study.com/academy/lesson/flagellum-bacterial-cell-function-definition-quiz.html.

Insight Multimedia.
“Bacteria.” Explore Your Body – Microbe Magic, 7 Aug. 2007,
microbemagic.ucc.ie/inside_guts/more_info/bacteria.html.

Russo, Juniper. “List
of Good Bacteria.” LIVESTRONG.COM, Leaf Group, 14 Aug. 2017, www.livestrong.com/article/26093-list-good-bacteria/.

DiPardo, Robert. “List
of Good Bacteria.” Healthy Eating | SF Gate,
healthyeating.sfgate.com/list-good-bacteria-7771.html.

“Bacteria: the Good,
the Bad, and the Ugly.” National Center for Health Research, 28
Mar. 2017, www.center4research.org/bacteria-good-bad-ugly/.

“Travelers’
Health.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, 5 Aug. 2014,
wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/diseases/pneumococcal-disease-streptococcus-pneumoniae.

Stöppler, Melissa
Conrad, and Charles Patrick Davis. “Pneumonia Types, Symptoms, Vaccine,
Treatment & Causes.” MedicineNet, www.medicinenet.com/pneumonia_facts/article.htm.

Society, Microbiology.
“What Are Antibiotics and How Do They Work?” Microbiology Society, microbiologysociety.org/education-outreach/antibiotics-unearthed/antibiotics-and-antibiotic-resistance/what-are-antibiotics-and-how-do-they-work.html.

Nordqvist, Christian.
“Antibiotics: All You Need To Know.” Medical News Today,
MediLexicon International, 2 Jan. 2017, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278.php.

“How Do Antibiotics
Work?” Science Focus, 8 Apr. 2010, www.sciencefocus.com/qa/how-do-antibiotics-kill-bacteria.

Castro, Joseph. “How Do
Antibiotics Work?” LiveScience, Purch, 19 Mar. 2014, www.livescience.com/44201-how-do-antibiotics-work.html.

Department of Health & Human Services. “Antibiotic
Resistant Bacteria.” Better Health Channel, Department of Health
& Human Services, 28 Feb. 2015, www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/antibiotic-resistant-bacteria.

“Antibiotic Prescribing and Use in Doctor’s
Offices.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, 25 Sept. 2017, www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/community/about/antibiotic-resistance-faqs.html.

“General Background: About Antibiotic Resistance.” APUA,
emerald.tufts.edu/med/apua/about_issue/about_antibioticres.shtml.

“GCSE Bitesize: Antibiotic Resistance.” BBC,
BBC,
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa/keepinghealthy/defendingagainstinfectionrev7.shtml.

“The
Value of Antibiotics in Treating Infectious Diseases.” Value of
Medicines, pp. 1–3.

Gallagher, James. “Analysis: Antibiotic
Apocalypse.” BBC News, BBC, 19 Nov. 2015, www.bbc.com/news/health-21702647.

Forster, Katie. “Scientists Modify Antibiotic to
Create New Super-Strength Drug to Fight Deadly Superbugs.” The
Independent, Independent Digital News and Media, 31 May 2017, www.independent.co.uk/news/health/superbugs-kill-cure-modify-antibiotics-create-super-strength-drug-scientists-vancomycin-a7765101.html.

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