Tawheed means oneness is (wahad) i.e one and its derivatives are ( Wahdan) i.e unique and (wah’datan) i.e incomparable. Waheed or Wahad denotes that being which, in its existence and attributes is unique and incomparable. It means Allah the highest is unique and incomparable in his being and attributes. It means to believe in the oneness of Allah. That is to believe that there is no god beside Allah. All the legitimate acts of worship must be dedicated to him alone. He is the sole creator and maintainer of the universe and what is in it.
The three aspects of Tawheed
They are 3 categories of tawheed :-
1. Tawheed ar – Rubiyah (Maintaining the unity of lordship)
2. Tawheed – al Asma was – sifat (Maintaining the unity of Allah’s name’s and attributes)
3. Tawheed al – Ibadah (Maintaining the unity of Allah’s worship)
1. Tawheed ar – Rubiyah
This type is to affirm that Allah is one and unique in his action’s, such as creation, provision, giving life and death. No one deserved to be worshipped except Allah alone. We should supplicate Allah alone, seeks his help, trust him and dedicates legitimate worship to him alone. The faith in the oneness of Allah is to believe that Allah is unique in his being, incomparable and without any partners. He has no wife, nor children nor does he have mother or father. He is not a part of any other being, nor is any other being a part of him.
Surah112 Al- Ikhlas (Purity)
(i) Say, he is Allah the one.
(ii) Allah the self-sufficient master.
(iii) He gives no birth and nor was he born.
(iv) And there is no one like him.
2. Tawheed al- Asma Was – Sifat
This type is to believe that Allah enjoys unique divine name’s and attributes with which Allah has named and qualified himself and those with which his messenger, may Allah exalt has mention named and qualified him without comparing him with his creatures and without suspending, distorting the meaning if his names and attributes.
The attributes of Allah are countless and so many that it is not possible even to enumerate them or even to imagine them.
This type of divine attributes are: –
The First rule
All of the names of Allah are beautiful and perfect and are free from every probability of defect.
The Second rule
The names of Allah are both appellations and epithets; appellations in term of his essence and epithets in term of the meaning and significance. As for appellations such as the Living, the Hearer, the Seer are all names of one god, Allah the Exalted. In terms of epithets each one of these names has a different signification then the others. That is his name, the Living has a different meaning then of the Hearer.
The Third rule
a) Confirming the name as one of Allah’s.
b) Confirming the attribute that the name signifies as one of Allah’s.
c) Confirming the ruling of that name.
The Fourth rule
We cannot give Allah name’s that he has not named himself with, nor did his messenger, may Allah exalt has mention, named him with.
The Fifth rule
The names of Allah are not limited to a certain number. There is a hadith which is related to the prophet, may Allah exalt mention, signifying that Allah 99 names, but this does not mean he has no other names.
The Sixth rule
Name’s and attributes of Allah should not be suspended or distorted.
a. They deny some of these names, their signification or rulings.
b. They hold them to resemble human attributes.
c. They give Allah names that he has not named himself. (Murad, 2006)
3. Tawheed al – Ibadah
It is also called as Tawheed al – Ululiyah. This type is the dedication of all acts of worship, vows, rules, prayers, charity etc. to Allah alone. Oneness in worship is that every form of worship should be for Allah only and no one else should be joined in it. In the Quran the word worship is used in two different meanings: –
Firstly, in the form of worship.
(41:37) Surah al Fussilat Verse no.37
Prostrate not to the sun and the moon, but prostrate to Allah, who created them, if it is him you wish to serve.
Secondly is used in the meaning of obedience and subordination
(36:60) Surah al Yaseen Verse no. 60
Did not enjoin on you, O you children of Adam, that you should not worship Satan; for that he was to you an enemy a vowed?
One has to maintain all three aspects of Tawheed to be considered a Muslim because it is the very first step a Muslim takes in the path of Islam. Every human being is born with primordial nature of acknowledging Allah as his creator but his parents turn him into Muslim or non – Muslim. Allah says in the hadeeth I have created all my creatures believing in my oneness, but devil leads them astray. The whole Quran proves the oneness of Allah. The quranic chapters contain information about Allah’s name’s and attributes for worshipping him and ascribing no partner to him. They contain command and prohibition’s that are right’s necessitated by tawheed. Allah promises rewards to those who believe in his oneness and punishment who do not believe. Testimony of faith is the key that open’s the gate of Islam to enter it. Tawheed is essential for man as water and air. It is the religion of religion. Without this a person is lost and confused. Prophet Muhammed (SAW) was concerned throughout his life with strengthening the Tawheed in the hearts of his companion. Quranic revelation for the first 13 years during the Makkan period spoke mainly about one issue that is Tawheed. (Masumi, 2006)