## INVESTIGATION energy, atmospheric entry, crater dimension, thermal radiation and

INVESTIGATION

There
are a few factors that must be calculated when we’re talking about asteroid
impact: impact energy, atmospheric entry, crater dimension, thermal radiation
and seismic effects. For this internal assessment I will be only investigating
two factors, which is the impact energy and crater dimension.

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IMPACT ENERGY is the energy required by the object to hit and fracture
another material. In this case, we will investigate the impact energy of the
asteroid towards the earth. The equation is originated from the kinetic energy
()
:

,
which is modified for an asteroid to =
, assuming that the asteroid is a
simple asteroid (spherical-shaped). is
the density of the asteroid, L is the
diameter of the asteroid and is
the velocity of the asteroid.

CRATER DIMENSION is how the ground will be shaped/warped due to the impact of
the asteroid. Because we are calculating a simple asteroid, we are only using
the equations for (a) transient crater (before impact) and (b) simple crater
(after impacts).

The
equation for (a) transient crater is:

Where
based on the figure (a),  is the diameter of the transient crater, is
the density of the asteroid, is
the density of the target area (ground or water), L and v is the diameter and
velocity of the asteroid, and g is the constant of earth’s surface gravity. The
sine is what angle the asteroid will be crashing on the earth.

The
equations for (b) simple crater start with measuring the final diameter of the
crater, using the equation:

This
is determined from the previous research done by (Grieve and Garvin 1984) in
Meteor and Brent Crater. We have to acknowledge that there is a thickness in
the breccia lens, which is determined by the equation:

Where

Thus
with all the data from the calculations collected, the final impact of the
crater in (b) simple crater is the sum with this equation:

CALCULATING PAST IMPACT: RIES
CRATER, GERMANY

SPECIFICATIONS
OF RIES ASTEROID

Projectile
Diameter

1500
m

Projectile
Density

Rock
(2700 kg/m3)

Impact
Velocity

20
km/s

Impact
Angle

30
degrees

Target
Type

Crystalline
Rock

CALCULATING
IMPACT ENERGY

= ______ joules

CALCULATING
(a) TRANSIENT CRATER

=

CALCULATING
(b) SIMPLE CRATER

=

=

=

CALCULATING FUTURE IMPACT 99942
APOPHIS

Projectile
Diameter

0.37 km = 320 m

Projectile
Density

Rock
(2,600
kg/m3)

Impact
Velocity

12.6
km/s

Impact
Angle

45
degrees

Target
Type

Crystalline
Rock

As
this asteroid impact is just a prediction, the target type will be the same as
the Reis Impact in Germany, which is crystalline rock, for a better comparison
during the discussion of results.

CALCULATING
IMPACT ENERGY

= ______ joules

CALCULATING
(a) TRANSIENT CRATER

=

CALCULATING
(b) SIMPLE CRATER

=

=

=

x Hi!
I'm Brenda!

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