Pathophysiology:PolyuriaPolyuria, from filtration since glucose is a solvent and

Pathophysiology:PolyuriaPolyuria, this is an abnormally large volume of urine excreted within a period of time. Glucose is important for cell metabolism, the main key for cell to receive glucose is insulin, this makes it possible for insulin to get nutrients. Pancreas is the organ that produce insulin imagine if your pancreas is not working or producing enough insulin the result is too much glucose in the blood, due to high levels of glucose osmotic pull process is achieved remember osmosis is the movement of water from low concentration to high concentration. In this case water is pulled from filtration since glucose is a solvent and not reabsorbed hence excessive urination or diaresis as in the case study Jackson has had a large amount of urine for a few days.PolydipsiaPolydipsia, this is excessive thirst, as observed in the case study patient reported increase thirst.As discussed above polyuria is increased diaresis in a patient, during polyuria process excessive electrolytes are lost in the process, this are Ketones, electrolytes goes hand in hand both positive and negative ions since they attract; when this happens the system become imbalance this causes problems in the GI system like pain and vomiting. Jackson came to emergency because of pain and vomiting with this in mind excessive urination and vomiting causes dehydration which triggers hypothalamic thirst receptors as a result excessive thirst.Polyphagia.This is increased or excessive hunger. In case study Jackson is polyphagia for about a week but unable to tolerate food and fluid at this time and. Even though there are high levels of glucose in diabetic patients, the cells are lacking nutrients, because of the beta cells not producing insulin or insulin resistance caused by change in receptor sites this cause the cell not to receive nutrients because any food eaten cannot be converted to ATP. Cells can only work if energy is available this causes increased hunger due to the cells trying to get energy and lack of energy contributes being tired, this is the reason why Jackson mum notices he is tired mor

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