What is inclusion?
is an educational approach and philosophy that cater all students with
community membership and greater contingencies for scholarly and social
achievements. Inclusion is about confirming that each and every student
feels acceptable and that their unique needs and learning styles are attended
to and highly regarded.
India, Ministry of Human Resource Development in its draft document on
Inclusive Education in 2003 has defined Inclusive Education as ” a system which
aims to provide a favourable setting for achieving equal opportunities and full
participation for all children with disabilities within general educational
that all children can learn
and respects differences (age, gender, ethnicity, language, disability, HIV
education structures, systems and methodologies to meet the needs of all
part of a wider strategy to promote an inclusive society
a dynamic process which is constantly evolving
not be restricted by large class sizes or shortage of material resources.
Indian ‘Equal Opportunities and Rights of
Persons with Disabilities ACT’ 1995, rule 26, speak about the education of
children with disabilities up to the age of 18 years in an appropriate
education must be very flexible in a system. The main principle of inclusive
education must be applied in the regular classrooms whenever feasible. The compulsion
for pliability must be emulated in the methods and materials used to provide
these children the widest possible approach to the regular curriculum. If the
kind of service needed is given a scope for discussion, the beginning point
should always be what is best for the distinct child. Underlining the inclusive
education does not eliminate the idea of special schools or centers. They would
always be needed to give education to the children with severe and compound difficulties
in need of more specialized and huge help.
What is an inclusive curriculum?
An inclusive curriculum
is said to be one which is constructed for all schools and it is offered for
all students, whether they are in mainstream or special schools. In those
nations where the present uncommon school practices that each school takes
after its own particular educational programs and deciphers the subjects they
instruct remarkably, at that point the nature of the showed educational
programs ends up plainly debilitated. This has two results. Right off the bat,
the understudies in uncommon schools are denied access to the instructive
culture of their capable companions and along these lines precluded fairness
from securing chance to learn. Besides, the educators don’t have a basic group
in which to build up the nature of the subjects they instruct, on the grounds
that there is no mutual cross- school gratefulness about the idea of the
substance. At the point when this occurs there is no common stage from which to
raise the norms of training for understudies with special education needs.
Along these lines an inclusive curriculum must identify with the key learning
regions of the central curriculum and the estimations of the focal culture.
Since every country has
its own particular culture and set of qualities to be transmitted, one
curriculum for all pupils ought to mirror these. There might be issues of
interpreting this culture and these qualities at level that is formatively
suitable for students, but this is a great challenge for the teacher to meet.
Each student needs a feeling of place and their topography, and each each
student needs access to expressions of the human experience and writing that is
a national fortune. An inclusive curriculum does this by tending to the learning,
ideas and qualities that are fitting
to all the students as laid out in the central curriculum documentation guidance.
students to access new information at their own particular individual level of
comprehension and at their own particular pace of learning is integral to an
inclusive curriculum. This implies on the priority that educators need to see
how to give students an access to a
similar subject substance however with various levels of reaction from the
instructor. Besides this approach is considerably more successfully connected
if the students are responsible for their own learning. There are numerous methods
for encouraging the students to control however it takes a great deal of
certainty from the instructor to move far from the more mandate educating from
the front of the class where the educator moves everybody along at a similar
pace. The educational modules should consequently advance separation through
students focused learning.
for Tending to Exceptional Necessities concerns while creating Comprehensive
‘When good inclusion is in place, the child
who needs the inclusion does not stand out. The inclusive curriculum includes
strong parental involvement, students making choices, and a lot of hands-on and
The exceptional characteristics, interest
furthermore attitudes about youngsters assorted qualities on taking in styles
interest differential educating help strategies should a chance to be utilized
by a teacher in the classroom with encourage Taking in. So as should help those
diversity, there may be a necessity will create an comprehensive educational
module. There is a need for inclusive curriculum for keeping in perspective the
differing qualities for learners. An inclusive curriculum plans to provide caliber
instruction that will empower the children with figure out successfully what’s
more partake just as to class.
also provides to children the dignity and confidence to learn. Assessment of
functional ability of learners calls for broad-based curriculum to accommodate
diversity of teaching approaches and use of TLMs (Teaching-Learning Materials)
in a given class room. The guiding principle of school curriculum should be
based on the theme of RTE Act 2009
to include and retain all children in school. The RTE 2009 has mandated entry
of diverse learners in the existing classrooms. For example, learners with
& without special needs have a right to inclusive learning environment.
This calls for appropriate modification in conventional curriculum models.
planning curriculum, attention must be given to the needs of any child with
disability. Here learning purpose may be the same for all students, but the
learning experiences may vary from child to child. The following guidelines
must be kept in mind while developing an inclusive curriculum for all children.
The curriculum for “ALL”
needs to be:
centred: Children with disabilities need
child-centred curriculum, which takes into account the individual needs of
children. The curriculum needs to set specific, observable, measurable and
achievable learning outcomes (SOMA).
Ø Flexible: A flexible, locally relevant curriculum, teaching and
learning strategies are intrinsically important for children with special needs
to participate in the educational process.
Ø Participatory: Children with special needs require a learning environment
in which they can actively participate in learning in small groups learning
with parents: Partnership with parents is a key
factor as children learn not only in the classrooms but also at home.
Ø Curriculum Adaptation: When every
child in the classroom including children with special needs are provided with an
opportunity to learn maximum according to their learning potential, to make required
adaptation in regular curriculum (learning content, learning approach, learning
aids and evaluation), to apply all possible approaches, it is known as
Curriculum adaptation. Curriculum adaptation is not a separate method for
children with disabilities. It is a process of making necessary changes in
learning content such as modification, substitution/ replacement, omission as a
last resort and compensation etc. without changing the learning purpose.
Ø Appropriate learning approach: Keeping the
children with disabilities in mind while adapting the curriculum, small changes
in learning content, learning friendly environment, appropriate learning approach,
adaptation in learning aid and evaluation should be done. If the curriculum is planned
in this way and applied like this for all children in the classrooms, then
learning can be maximized for all children, including children with
child centered pedagogy keeping in mind the child’s psychological
development, interests and specific
equal access in every possible manner (physical, attitudinal, academic and
social) to maximize learning.
learning in an inclusive learning environment with accessible material, positive
attitude and relevant/adaptive teaching strategies.
required adaptation in curriculum (learning content, learning approach,
learning aids and evaluation) to address and accommodate individualised
for use of all available educational / assistive technologies to ensure equal
participation of and effective learning in all children specifically for children
with special needs.
all children with and without special needs by providing differential opportunities
to demonstrate learnt skills according to their learning abilities.
components of life skills through transitional stages working towards independent
locally available conditions/ opportunities/ situations to develop
pre-vocational and vocational competencies.
work pedagogy in education and include broad-based work experiences taking care
of the needs of children with special needs.
participation of children with special needs in play, games, social and cultural
activities to improve the physical and mental health by developing appropriate
flexibility in school and class time tables to address individual needs of children.
opportunities for facilitated social interaction.
knowledge by connecting new ideas to existing ideas on the basis of materials/
has to be transacted through text books. Hence, while developing text books, it
would be important to make them inclusive. The text books would have to be developed
in a way so that a particular concept can be understood by a diverse group of learners
in a classroom.
teaching learning materials like pictorial form of all the text books for the
students with hearing disabilities, which is ultimately helping ‘ALL’ students.
Developing and providing access to e-text versions of the print material. Electronic
textbooks can also be developed that have animation and sound and provide links
to several items and suggest associations among ideas. This allows the students
to interact with the material, which is especially helpful for children with
Ø Teachers are the backbone for developing
Inclusive practices. They can make or mar inclusion. Teachers need to develop
the capacity to improve and adjust the curriculum to deliver educational
programs, which are appropriate for all children. A shift in philosophy is
needed from a focus on deficits to an understanding that all children are
capable of learning. Rather than placing responsibility for failure on the
child or the environment, the task is to specify the conditions under which
diverse students can achieve optimal learning success.
features of an inclusive curriculum
reflects the kind of society to which we aspire–It should be solidly grounded
on a wide interpretation of the demands and expectations of society, as well as
the key definitions of the role of education in society. –Inclusive curriculum
development should therefore be seen as a continuous process and closely
intertwined with social inclusion.
Ø It ensures both
equity and quality – This allows education systems to effectively respond to
learners’ diversities and consequently better sustain education for all in the
long-term.–The lifelong learning approach to the organization of curriculum may
serve as the integrative aspect that links the different forms and types of
Ø It is flexible,
balanced and relevant to each context and individual–It addresses and
incorporates national, local and learners’ diversities. –It needs to achieve a
balance between the global, national and local expectations, realities and
Ø There is no “one
size fits all” model–However, the same curriculum can be taught to differently-abled
learners–various teaching strategies (diversification of modes of instruction)
and learning materials (Braille, mother-tongue instruction etc) must be used
within a common and shared national education policy and curricular vision.
Ø A competency-based
approach may be understood as a progressive opportunity to achieve an inclusive
curriculum–It provides an innovative way of conceiving and organizing the
curricular structure and objectives as well as the disciplinary content, in
order to develop autonomous, critical and assertive citizens.
Challenges to fostering an inclusive curriculum
Ø Move away from
rigid disciplinary and decontextualised content and towards multiplicity of
contextualized, inter-disciplinary and significant resources for the student.
•Traditional forms and contents of knowledge organization and modes of
instruction, as well as disciplinary identities and boundaries, must be revised
in line with the goals and with universal cross-cutting issues.
Ø There is no
universal model for fostering and implementing an inclusive curriculum It
implies the construction of a curricular vision to synthesize and integrate
this diversity of views and interests.
Ø The lack of
clear objectives and definitions gives rise to dilemmas in measuring the
efficiency and effectiveness of inclusion in schools.
progress depends greatly on how countries understand and define quality and
success in education, as well as how they implement their vision through the
curriculum.The sharing of experiences and best practices can strengthen the
understanding of IE and, therefore, benefit inclusive curricular
Ø An inclusive
curriculum is only as good as its application in the classroom, and thus the
teachers are key partners in curricular development and implementation and must
be involved in all aspects and at all levels.
education curricula (pre-service and in-service), and more generally teachers’
professional development, must be reviewed to prepare teachers for an inclusive
•Appropriate resources and materials, strong
networks, as well as community and institutional support are all essential in
education must respond to all pupils as individuals, recognizing individuality
as something to be appreciated and respected. Inclusive education responding to
special needs will thus have positive returns for all pupils. All children and
young people of the world, with their individual strengths and weaknesses, with
their hopes and expectations, have the right to education. It is not our
education systems that have a right to a certain type of children. Therefore,
it is the school system of a country that must be adjusted to meet the needs of
all its children.”
is a big and difficult task, but “where
there is a will there is a way!”